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Motivation is the incentive to work; hence having a motivated workforce is vital for most businesses, since a highly motivated workforce can lead to higher rates of productivity, better quality output, and low rates of absenteeism and labour turnover.

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Tom Almond Motivation is the incentive to work; hence having a motivated workforce is vital for most businesses, since a highly motivated workforce can lead to higher rates of productivity, better quality output, and low rates of absenteeism and labour turnover. The main factors which, affect the motivation of workers are pay levels, job security, promotional prospects, responsibility, working conditions, fringe benefits, participation in decision-making and working in a team There are two basic theories of motivation, content theories and process theories. Content theories deal with what actually motivates people, what needs to be satisfied in order for workers to be motivated. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an example of a content theory. Process theories on the other hand deal with the though processes which affect the workforces behaviour. An example of this is staff at a company working on commission, e.g. their pay is directly affected by production or their sales. I hope to improve my understanding of the different theories and how these theories are applied in real world companies. Abraham Maslow's theory of human motivation was published in 1943. He based his theory upon his belief that actualisation was the driving force of human personality. ...read more.


The affiliation needs of people are fulfilled by each Asda employee being given a 'buddy', which whom, problems, qualms, etc can be privately and confidentially discussed. The esteem needs of people are met by Asda having events such as an achievers lunch, at which, that month's best worker from each department is invited to a lunch together. There are also other things like an award for giving the best customer service each month, departmental competitions and employee's, if they have an idea to improve Asda, can 'tell Tony', this is a scheme which, allows all Asda employees to participate in the running of the company. The prospect of self-actualisation is achieved by offering employees the opportunity for training, promotion, which will allow them to work their way up the job ladder, to their maximum potential. Douglas McGregor's theory of the x and y managers was published in a book called 'The Human Side Of Enterprise', in 1960. His theory stereotypes all managers into two groups, type x and type y. Type x manager's work on the assumption that all human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can. ...read more.


I believe Hertzberg's theory to be a modification of Maslow's theory that is more applicable to the modern world, since modern or basic needs, no longer include only food, shelter and warmth, most people will consider a TV, car, etc, basic needs. These modern basic needs can be covered by Hertzberg's context factors. Asda use Hertzberg's theory, since it is a modern extension of Maslow's theory, as I explained above. Taylor theory was not about motivation; rather it was about specialisation, which had the same final result as motivation, increased productivity and efficiency. Taylor formed the basis for all the theorists with his introduction of the scientific approach to decision making. Taylor's theory is still applicable to all professions, since he created specialisation, which is the basis of all modern businesses. Previous to Taylor creating specialisation workers had changed jobs erratically, so people never learnt how to do a job efficiently, but when Taylor introduced specialisation people only did one type of job, weaving for example, so they became skilled in doing that specific thing, so the production line was more efficient. During this assignment I have developed a more though understanding of what motivates people and the theories developed to motivate people. Prior to completing this assignment I had failed to realise the importance of motivation. ...read more.

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