• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Political Ideologies

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Political Ideologies Liberalism * Sometimes portrayed as a meta-ideology because it is able to embrace a broad range of rival values and beliefs * Consists of the break down in federalism and the growth of a market place or capitalist society * Early liberalism = aspirations of the middle classes * Attacks absolutism and feudal privilege - wants representative government * 19th century - laissez-faire capitalism + limited gov. intervention * Recently - more social state and economic intervention Elements of Liberalism > Individualism * Supreme importance of the human individual as opposed to any social group * Humans are seen as individuals - all equal of moral worth * Aim to develop a society where each individual can flourish with different qualities * Lays down a set of rules for humans to make moral choices over > Freedom * Individual freedom is given more importance than equality or justice etc. * Humans must enjoy as much freedom as possible without encroaching on other's freedom (there is a need for laws) > Reason * World has a rational structure * Places faith in the ability of humans to make wise judgements * Believe in progress - settle differences by debate and argument instead of bloodshed and war > Equality * Individuals are born equal * ...read more.

Middle

has been 'tested by time' * Promotes security and stability - people have a sense of social and historical belonging > Pragmatism * Human rationality is limited - we cannot possibly understand the world as it is too difficult to understand * Principles and systems of thought (such as ideology) are not trusted - experience is * Pragmatism = actions should be shaped by practical circumstances and practical goals * Their beliefs are an 'approach to life' or 'attitude of mind' > Human Imperfection * Human beings are limited, dependant, security seeking, drawn to familiar things, and have a need to live in stable communities * Individuals are selfish, morally corrupt, greedy and have a thirst for power * Crime and disorder lye with the individual not the state * Maintenance of order therefore requires a strong state with strict laws and tough penalties. > Organicism * Society is a living whole - not a product of human ingenuity * Society is structured with necessary essentials such as families, local communities and the nation as a whole. * Shared values and a common culture can also be seen as important for social cohesion. > Hierarchy * Social positioning is natural and inevitable * Reflect differing roles, such as parent and child * Hierarchy and inequality to ...read more.

Conclusion

linked by the existence of common humanity * Importance in community - individual personality is made up from social interaction and membership of social groups and collective bodies * Emphasise nurture over nature > Fraternity * Humans are bound together by a sense of comradeship or fraternity * Encourages cooperation rather than competition * Favour collectivism over individualism * Cooperation enables people to build in their views into the community where as competition breeds resentment, conflict and hostility > Social equality * Primacy of equality over other values * Social equality - equality of outcome over opportunity * Gives humans a sense of individualism > Need * Material benefits should be distributed on a basis of need rather than on a basis or merit or work * Belief that if basic needs of a human are fulfilled then a human with feel a purpose for existence > Social class * Analyse society on basis of wealth and therefore class is a significant * Socialism has been associated with the interests of the oppressed and exploited working class * A want for the eradication of economic and social inequalities or their substantial reduction > Common ownership * Either a means of generating broader equality or the end of socialism altogether * Private property is an evil Marxism ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Political Philosophy section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Political Philosophy essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    "Explain And Discuss How The "Ideologies Of Welfare" Explored In This Module Can Be ...

    3 star(s)

    win the general election of 1979, which saw the beginning of the Conservative's reign for eighteen years. Upon election, Mrs. Thatcher and her government vowed to reverse Britain's economic decline and to reduce the role of government (Jary, 1996, P685).

  2. Liberalism has a dual commitment both to individual freedom and equality. How does liberalism ...

    This is because situations would constantly arise where one individual's freedom would conflict with another. If only one of the clashing freedoms is pursued then the other individuals' freedom would be greatly restricted. This would cause a severe inequality. If one man wants to kill another man, it is impossible for both men to have absolute freedom of choice.

  1. Notes on John Stuart Mill's On Liberty

    Remember, according to Mill's theory of rights, people don't have any rights aside from those granted by society, so people never give up their right to the money taken in taxes, they never had the right to it in the first place.

  2. The Parliamentary Reform and Redistribution Act of 1884 - 1885.

    Due to the Late Victorian Crisis the Liberal Party was deemed as the Working Class Party, with the duty to serve and put forward the views of the working class in Parliament now that they had the 25.5% additional voting power as stated in the Third Parliament Act in 1884.

  1. Compare and contrast Marx and Engels with Mill regarding social and economic progress

    They did not reject idea of human nature itself but believed that the need to labour on nature to satisfy human needs was the only consistent feature of all human societies it is the 'everlasting nature-imposed condition of human existence'.

  2. How and why does Locke explain the creation, value and protection of property?

    Man had a natural right to that with which he mixed his labour. The fundamental idea behind this theory on private property was that by expending ones internal energy (owns labour power) upon something, that item became a part of oneself, or one's private property.

  1. Political Ideologies - Socialism.

    Blanqui proposed to do it through a small band of conspirators. Marx and Engels however, saw a proletarian revolution in which the masses of the working class would overthrow the bourgeoisie. This view arose from a growing dislike of Capitalism; industrialization having produced an injustice geared towards the working classes with widespread poverty and unemployment.

  2. Analyse The Main Features of Classical Liberalism

    Bentham treats all forms of happiness as equal, whereas Mill argues that intellectual and moral pleasures are superior to more physical forms of pleasure. Mill distinguishes between "happiness" and "contentment," claiming that the former is of higher value than the latter, a belief wittily encapsulated in his statement that "It

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work