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Political Ideologies

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Introduction

Political Ideologies Liberalism * Sometimes portrayed as a meta-ideology because it is able to embrace a broad range of rival values and beliefs * Consists of the break down in federalism and the growth of a market place or capitalist society * Early liberalism = aspirations of the middle classes * Attacks absolutism and feudal privilege - wants representative government * 19th century - laissez-faire capitalism + limited gov. intervention * Recently - more social state and economic intervention Elements of Liberalism > Individualism * Supreme importance of the human individual as opposed to any social group * Humans are seen as individuals - all equal of moral worth * Aim to develop a society where each individual can flourish with different qualities * Lays down a set of rules for humans to make moral choices over > Freedom * Individual freedom is given more importance than equality or justice etc. * Humans must enjoy as much freedom as possible without encroaching on other's freedom (there is a need for laws) > Reason * World has a rational structure * Places faith in the ability of humans to make wise judgements * Believe in progress - settle differences by debate and argument instead of bloodshed and war > Equality * Individuals are born equal * ...read more.

Middle

has been 'tested by time' * Promotes security and stability - people have a sense of social and historical belonging > Pragmatism * Human rationality is limited - we cannot possibly understand the world as it is too difficult to understand * Principles and systems of thought (such as ideology) are not trusted - experience is * Pragmatism = actions should be shaped by practical circumstances and practical goals * Their beliefs are an 'approach to life' or 'attitude of mind' > Human Imperfection * Human beings are limited, dependant, security seeking, drawn to familiar things, and have a need to live in stable communities * Individuals are selfish, morally corrupt, greedy and have a thirst for power * Crime and disorder lye with the individual not the state * Maintenance of order therefore requires a strong state with strict laws and tough penalties. > Organicism * Society is a living whole - not a product of human ingenuity * Society is structured with necessary essentials such as families, local communities and the nation as a whole. * Shared values and a common culture can also be seen as important for social cohesion. > Hierarchy * Social positioning is natural and inevitable * Reflect differing roles, such as parent and child * Hierarchy and inequality to ...read more.

Conclusion

linked by the existence of common humanity * Importance in community - individual personality is made up from social interaction and membership of social groups and collective bodies * Emphasise nurture over nature > Fraternity * Humans are bound together by a sense of comradeship or fraternity * Encourages cooperation rather than competition * Favour collectivism over individualism * Cooperation enables people to build in their views into the community where as competition breeds resentment, conflict and hostility > Social equality * Primacy of equality over other values * Social equality - equality of outcome over opportunity * Gives humans a sense of individualism > Need * Material benefits should be distributed on a basis of need rather than on a basis or merit or work * Belief that if basic needs of a human are fulfilled then a human with feel a purpose for existence > Social class * Analyse society on basis of wealth and therefore class is a significant * Socialism has been associated with the interests of the oppressed and exploited working class * A want for the eradication of economic and social inequalities or their substantial reduction > Common ownership * Either a means of generating broader equality or the end of socialism altogether * Private property is an evil Marxism ...read more.

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