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AS and A Level: Political Philosophy

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  1. Wilted Socialist Rose?: Changing fortunes of the French Socialist Party

    The measures of development taken are the size of support base, image of party, and electoral success. Since the introduction of the Fifth Republic by Charles de Gaulle in 1958, the governmental system of France has been a semi-presidential system, where both the president and the prime minister have equal power and legitimacy. This system has both "perils" and "virtues" (Linz 1990), which are, respectively, cohabitation and clear division of power. A president is directly elected for a five-year term.

    • Word count: 3382
  2. Indonesia: Transition and Prospects for Democracy

    Finally, the extent of democracy will be assessed according to Dahl's definition given above. Timeline In 1945, nationalist leader Sukarno declared independence, fully recognized only in 1949 after five years of fighting against its former colonial rulers, the Netherlands. Several unsuccessful parliamentary governments collapsed due to the absence of a majority party, during what is now called the "liberal democratic" period in 1950-57 (Neher & Marlay, 1995). This period ended with "Guided Democracy", Sukarno's new form of government based on antiquated Indonesian tradition. After an unsuccessful alleged communist coup, Suharto overthrew Sukarno and installed himself as the second president in 1968, proclaiming a "New Order".

    • Word count: 3556
  3. Primary elections in the USA are used to decide the candidates for each political party in the upcoming general election.

    Until Bill Clinton in 1992 no one who had lost New Hampshire had been elected. In the 1980's a number of southern states banded together and decided to hold their primaries all on the same day in order to compete with New Hampshire, this became known as Super Tuesday. The first successful regional primary was Super Tuesday of March 8, 1988, in which nine Southern states united in the hope that the Democrats would select a candidate in line with Southern interests. Although the importance of New Hampshire was not decreased by Super Tuesday the day itself has become very influential, and the nominations for the two parties are usually settled on Super Tuesday.

    • Word count: 956
  4. Main features of fascism

    Fascism does not believe in individualism and materialism and they call for a spiritual revolution against these morals of individualism and materialism and fight against threats and groups that threaten the organic community that they believe in. Fascism tends to embrace the idea of masculinity, mystical unity, youth and the power of violence. It promotes a lot of ideas to the community living with in like ethnic persecution, genocide (holocaust in Germany against Jews) and also imperialist expansion by spreading the idea of their ideology and has influence on other countries.

    • Word count: 1141
  5. Crisis and conflict are inevitable in capitalist economies.

    Furthermore, Marx argued that the crisis would become deeper and severe longer as capitalism developed. Student no. Z3220293 However Marx's analysis of conflict within capitalist societies was limited by his theory of the 'laws of motion'. He argued that conflict between classes created by an unequal distribution of wealth, and would ultimately lead to an unsustainable social situation prompting the demise of the world capitalist system. Thus, he perceived class conflict as the fatal flaw of capitalism. However his detractors would argue that conflict of some form exists in all human interactions and thus has existed in all political and economic systems, concluding that capitalism addresses this inherently human conflict in order to avoid crisis.

    • Word count: 1336
  6. Islamism is far more diverse than a violent political ideology. Discuss.

    It will discuss the media's overemphasis on violent Jihadi groups, which has presented many misconceptions about Islamism. It is a popular misconception that 'political Islam' and Islam both exist as a monolithic phenomenon. Many argue that adherents of Islamism believe that Islam, as a body of faith, is significant in how politics and society should be ordered in the contemporary Muslim world (Fuller, 2003). This concept is overly general and fails to consider the broad scope of political activities undertaken in the name of Islam (Ayoob, 2005). It would be more accurate to assert that Islamists are individuals, groups and organizations using Islam as an instrument to pursue political means (Denoeux, 2002).

    • Word count: 946
  7. Account for the rejection of the "democratic experiment" by the independent Southeast Asia states.

    It is mainly the incompetence of democratic leaders in mismanaging the economy and its ineffectiveness in breaking the country free from the poverty cycle led to a loss of support for the democratic government. Sukarno behaved flamboyantly in public, travelled around the world on costly junkets and lived like a monarch from Indonesia's pre-Muslim era. in 1955 he hosted the leaders of Africa and Asia at a conference in the city on Bandang, an event that started the Non-Aligned or Third World movement.

    • Word count: 1379
  8. Free essay

    The emerge of Alliance 90

    The German and Belgian greens have proved most successful. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of the German Green Party - Alliance 90/Die Grunen and to compare the social characteristics and political views of this party's voters. Who are the people that choose to vote for this party? Why is the Green Party so popular in Germany compared to other countries? Are the green parties going to last or are they simply something that will soon disappear?

    • Word count: 2210
  9. Free essay

    personal statement

    A level History has provided me with a range of transferable skills, focusing widely on the ability to understand, scrutinise and evaluate a range of sources from different perspectives as well as addressing the political issues behind decisions undertaken in various countries based on its diverse cultures and values. The coursework I have undertaken to study for Media is the production of a documentary titled, 'The War on Terror'.

    • Word count: 501
  10. Political Power

    Lukes2 acknowledges that this concept can never be settled. Alternatively he accepts the broad definition of power as A's ability to get B to do what he or she would not otherwise have done but tries to highlight 3 different ways in which A can influence B's behaviour: decision-making, agenda-setting and thought control. The one face of power - power as decision-making was suggested by Dahl in the early post war years. The thesis put forward above was originally proposed by him and this one-dimensional view of power was significant and influential in 1950s.

    • Word count: 1726
  11. Great Depression

    Finally, the overall goal of the Nazi economic system was the preparation and mobilization for of war. Nonetheless, there do arise a few similarities between the US and Nazi responses to the Depression and the results they achieved. First, both Hitler and FDR had replaced political leaders who had proven incapable of managing the growing economic crisis facing the world during the 1930's. Much like the New Deal's FERA and WPA programs, Hitler also used public works projects, directed by the National Labor Service, to create jobs for the German people. However, unlike the US, very little support was given to citizens in terms of direct aid.

    • Word count: 4069
  12. Compare and contrast some of the ways in which major political thinkers have tried to draw the differences between authority of the state and freedom of the individuals.

    Due to the English civil war he spent a lot of time in exile. As a mathematical tutor Hobbes taught the future Charles II and also worked on the Leviathan (1651) in which he denotes the state processes supreme authority and power over all other social institutions. Hobbes' theory rests on the concepts of State of nature, Social contract and the notion of sovereignty. According to him the state of nature is under the rule of God and all individuals are equal but Hobbes emphasises that human nature is egotistic and selfish (self preservation due to collision of wants)

    • Word count: 2040
  13. This essay is going to give a general introduction of party systems first, then address the US and UK party systems from several aspects respectively, finally compare

    Republicans are anti-welfare, anti-government intervention, and also on social side, anti-gun control anti-abortion. On the other hand, the Democratic Party is much more liberal, the introduction of "New Deal" by Roosevelt is the best example. Moreover, as opposed to the Republican Party, the Democratic Party is becoming social liberal as well, pro-abortion, pro-gun control and so on.3 The US party systems have several characteristics that distinguish it from other party systems. Firstly, there is a lack of mass party membership in the US. As a study from Indiana, even those who have official jobs are not all active on party's behalf, including ten percent of totally inactive officials.4 Moreover, those who are active within the party are often without status.

    • Word count: 1780
  14. Explain why the Liberals were electorally so successful so often, 1868-85?

    To begin with an analysis of the role of William Ewart Gladstone seems sensible as he was, of course, the dominant Liberal figure of the age and therefore the orchestrator of many of the rationalisations of Liberal popularity. It is, however, easy to heap too much responsibility upon Gladstone as the hero of liberalism rather than Liberalism. It was, in fact, the prevailing liberal mood that allowed Gladstone to work as he did, and without which he would have been unable to make any headway at all.

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  15. Is the Liberal perspective on world politics too idealistic?

    Liberalism emphasizes the importance of individual rights. 'It seeks a society characterized by freedom of thought for individuals, limitations on power (especially of government and religion), the rule of law, the free exchange of ideas, a market economy that supports free private enterprise, and a transparent system of government in which the rights of all citizens are protected'. (Wikipedia.org) Liberals support a liberal democracy with open and fair elections, where all members of the public have equal right and opportunity. As with other ideologies, there are different versions of liberalism, but the underlining consensus of liberalism is the emphasis on the importance and primacy of individual freedom and choice.

    • Word count: 2976
  16. Account for the Decline of Partisanship as a determinant of Voting Behaviour

    This abandonment of party could be caused by people who are easily influenced by the media, whom generally criticise both parties, making the voter confused and unable too decide who they want too vote for and so decide not too vote either way. Politicians have lost a lot of respect due too the mass media and the viewer/voter's compulsion too have access too 24 hour TV on which politicians usually slip-up, make mistakes and also say stupid comments, therefore, making the voter feel they are not responsible enough to run a country or a party.

    • Word count: 503
  17. An analysis of the Marxist perspective on religion

    It is "the opium of the people." Those who practice religion may feel happy for a while, but eventually they will return to the exact same state as before. This point will be explained further later on in my essay. The second point that Marx argues from his ideology is that the need for illusions about the world stems from the material conditions under which people live. In a society where people are oppressed and exploited people will substitute the illusory happiness provided by religion for real happiness.

    • Word count: 3308
  18. Critically evaluate the techniques used in the production and dissemination of propaganda in print an film in the period 1933-2000

    But, product propaganda is much lighter hearted than propaganda that was produced for a political party, as it does not directly influence your own choice and thoughts about a certain position. In the earlier part of the 20th century propaganda made a massive impact on the public, both negative and positive, in fact such an impact The Institute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA) was launched in 1937. This organization was formed to inform the public about the methods of propaganda and how to stay open minded and not become victim to its influence no matter how powerful the message may be.

    • Word count: 1305
  19. "Plato's forms are no more than an invention". Discuss

    His theory was that all objects and concepts in the visible world have reality behind them. Plato called this reality its Form. For example the concept of beauty is in fact the Form of beauty. This applies for every other concept as well. However Plato stipulated that the Forms stand alone in the World of Forms rather than being attached to concepts and objects. His analogy of the cave is the premise in which he chooses to emphasise this difference between the appearance of the world and the reality behind this appearance. Different characters and objects represent different things.

    • Word count: 907
  20. New Liberalism in Britain 1909 emerged as a result of a combination of ideological and political factors

    New Liberalism developed partly due to the ideological ideas and theories which emerged in the early 1900's. The work of two social researchers, Booth and Rowntree had a huge impact on the communal attitude of poverty in England. They carried out research to analyse the levels of poverty in Britain, using hypotheses and theories in which they could compare their findings. This is where the phrase 'physical efficiency' came about. Rowntree stated that a person who could not afford to buy the bare necessities needed to live, then they were living in poverty- They were not meeting physical efficiency.

    • Word count: 1063
  21. Europe post WW1

    Just military failures on the fronts, along with other problems directly affected internal politics in a great way. This horrible catastrophe also left most of the countries in huge debts, especially Germany, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and many others. This led to poverty and chaos, and the people were suffering. That is why they started to revolt, but the political system was so exhausted after the war that it didn't do anything to solve this. The effects of the war sped up the changes. It is an arguable fact, whether the war also had a liberating effect. If it did, it was greatly affected by the downfall of three empires, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Tsarist Russia and Keiser's Germany.

    • Word count: 1729
  22. Photomontage in Berlin, A critical study of the capitals inter-war artwork

    Dada in Berlin leaned towards the angrier and politically motivated approach to the arts. Unquestionably because of what the war had done to the economy and state of Germany. The political climate in Germany was one of extremes, with the communist and fascist parties fighting for control. Therefore it is perfectly conceivable that Dada would take a similar extreme stance. "Towards the end of the war Berlin was a half-starved nightmare city, and there was increasing social and political chaos, which was to last until 1933"1. This social and political chaos gave the Dadaists the perfect grounds to use their movement as a way of promoting political ideals.

    • Word count: 1633
  23. Socialist uses of workers' inquiry

    and the critique of political economy is linked to a historical and philosophical conception of humanity and history. However, Marx's Capital abandons this metaphysical and philosophical outlook and the later critique is levelled exclusively at a specific situation that is capitalism, without claiming to be a universal anti-critique of the one-sidedness of bourgeois political economy. It could easily be said that a notion of sociology as political science is fundamental to Marxism and if we were to provide a generic definition of Marxism it could be that of a sociology conceived as political science, as a science of revolution.

    • Word count: 21955
  24. So, whats wrong with Anarchism?

    The four different schools of thought in anarchy are: individualism, mutualism, collectivism and communism. Each of them differs in opinion and how the perfect anarchist society should be constructed. Individualists see the individual as their starting point, the German Max Sterner argued that the person should act exactly as he pleases taking no notice of God, state or moral values. Another individualist, Benjamin Tucker, argued that without the state each person could exercise the right to protect his own freedom4. Both of the above mentioned anarchists argue for freedom of the person and no state, they have a vision that everyone would act on behalf of their own interests and their own good.

    • Word count: 2292
  25. Galen or hippocraties

    This way of recording was truly brilliant, because from one of his first patients he discovered illnesses such as epilepsy. This recording his findings in books method was the birth of his major theory, which would make him famous still today. This theory was called the four humours; he believed that out body was predominantly balanced with four major parts. These were blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile. He believed that these four humours were the main structures of our health, and when one became unbalanced by having too much blood for example, that is what would make us ill, and to cure you have to simply take away some blood so they are balanced again.

    • Word count: 1532

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