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AS and A Level: Political Philosophy

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 10
  • Peer Reviewed essays 4
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    How and to what extent has modern liberalism departed from the ideas of classical liberalism?

    5 star(s)

    The Modern Liberal view stands in contrast to this original perspective; they believe that they state should intervene for positive impact, for example, the provision of equal opportunities, as without the chance to realise his potential, they believe that the individual cannot be free. This modern liberal concept of freedom as relying on the provision of opportunities and the chance to realise potential means that they see the classical liberals' ideal state as just as much of a threat to individual freedom as state coercion, and can therefore justify a more interventionalist state.

    • Word count: 942
  2. Marked by a teacher

    'The history of socialism had been marked by a retreat from its traditional principles. Discuss.'

    4 star(s)

    Although early socialists supported the idea of a popular revolution, the rise of evolutionary socialist ideas in the early twentieth century can be seen as an early sign of socialism straying from it's traditional principles. With a multitude of institutions that worked in the interests of the working class, including trade unions and political parties, it seemed less logical that the working class would employ the violent revolution that revolutionary socialists had advocated. In Britain democracy was getting closer to achieving the goal of a universal franchise, and in reaction to this came the Fabian prophecy 'the inevitability of gradualism'.

    • Word count: 831
  3. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent has "new" Labour abandoned traditional socialist principles

    3 star(s)

    It was as part of this system that benefits for the unemployed and the National Health Service were introduced. Since Old Labour was set up and funded by the trade unions, close relations with the trade unions were essential. Resultantly, the Labour party argued for policies which benefited the working class, such as better working conditions and the establishment of a minimum wage. Another policy supported by old labour and introduced by Attlee was nationalisation of the major industries such as iron, steel, gas and coal. This policy directly complied with clause IV regarding the "common ownership of the means of production". Progressive taxation was a central concept in old Labour's manifesto and was known as "clobber the rich".

    • Word count: 820
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Is war Inevitable?

    Also they may join a war to protect an ally. I feel countries get involved in war for benefit for themselves. The reason why wars start is the exact same thing: where countries want other countries land, or resources. Or perhaps another country's government wronged them. There are also wars of religion. Then there are civil wars, usually occurring because the people are not happy with the government (not always though). Then there are people like Hitler, who have personal reasons.

    • Word count: 786
  5. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent has the UK political system become more democratic in recent years

    Also they argue referendums are expensive and disrupt the government. Others argue that because referendums are held at a time of the ruling party's choice, they have the biggest influence on the outcome of the vote. If these criticisms are true then obviously the use of referendums are actually degrading from the democratic process, however others disagree. Supporters of referendums argue that there use in our political system will re-connect voters, after having participated in this process they will take more notice of real issues, rather than say a party leader's personality therefore allowing them to become more involved.

    • Word count: 810
  6. Peer reviewed

    to what extent have conservatives supported one nation principles?

    5 star(s)

    However, a pragmatism that places great importance on maintaining the balance between social reform and a lack of interference in the economy is also at the centre of the ideology. This is characterised by a belief that those with wealth should be allowed to keep it but should also be prepared to help those less fortunate of their own accord. An example of the accommodation that one-nation Conservatives reach with Capitalism can be seen in Disraeli's factory reform acts that limited the hours of women and children but not those of men.

    • Word count: 976
  7. Conservatsim favours pragmatism over principle, discuss.

    Society is too complicated for human's to fully understand and can therefore never fully understand the political system. Traditional conservatives are therefore suspicious of abstract ideas and systems of thought that claim to understand how society and the world should be run as it is out of grasp for an individual to understand. They prefer to ground their ideas in tradition and therefore giving a more pragmatic approach to the world, and avoiding vast changes within society, for example revolt. Principles such as rights of man, equality and social justice are fraught with danger because they provide a blueprint for the reform or remodelling of the world.

    • Word count: 971
  8. Fascism Can Largely Be Defined By What It Opposes. Discuss.

    On the contrast, fascists are for the cycle of elites, an idea that Vilfredo Pareto very much felt true. They believe that people are inferior and have different abilities and some people will rise up and lead countries. Friedrich Nietzsche had the idea of an ideal superior man of the future who could rise above conventional Christian morality to create and impose his own values. Following on from this is the way in which fascists are against limited governments which prevent an overpowering government from medalling with peoples' lives like the Liberal thinker John Locke thinks. Instead they believe that there should be a totalitarian state, a state which has all power and where there is no freedom of speech nor can you say what you want to do.

    • Word count: 805
  9. Free essay

    On what grounds do Anarchists believe in the possibility of a stateless society

    Without a state, Anarchists believe that people would be capable of organising themselves without being ruled over from above, and would for a spontaneous social order, without a natural hierarchy and without there being an inequality due to a class based society with an elite section. Collectivist anarchists claim human beings are naturally sociable and co-operative. Collectivist anarchists argue that common ownership, decentralisation and self-management encourage social harmony and personal development.

    • Word count: 454
  10. Free essay

    Representative democracy is more ideal than direct democracy. Discuss

    Educating the whole electorate on such issues would be exceptionally difficult for a number of reasons, and if an uninformed electorate were to vote on issues the results could be incredibly damaging. Making it a lot more difficult for a direct democracy to inform citizens on a complicated issue.

    • Word count: 488
  11. Assess the advantages and disadvantages of direct democracy.

    One example would be in California (1978), when the people voted for Proposition 13. This led to a severe shortage of emergency services, and the authorities were unable to deal with a fire that swept through Orange County. Direct democracy can also lead to the majority discriminating against a minority. For example women did not gain the vote in Switzerland until 1971 because until then the franchise consisted entirely of men.

    • Word count: 513
  12. What is power? Power is the ability to influence others through the use of threats, sanctions or manipulation. That power is legitimate and is called authority whereas the authority is defined as rightful power

    Weber saw a charismatic leader as the head of community. Rational- Legal Authority (which is the last type) depends upon a formal set of rules (which gives those who hold authority the right to direct and command others and to take decisions on their behalf). Another ideologist of this term is Niccolo Machiavelli - the Italian political philosopher - who wrote an essay "The Prince". In his work he examined "mechanic of power" and rejected ideas about political authority. He argued that the conventional advice to rules to be merciful, liberal and loved was ideal in a word in which people were virtuous, but the problem was that the world wasn't like that.

    • Word count: 612
  13. Government and Politics Personal Statement

    I am interested in the role of the UN as a global authority, the process of conflict resolution and the alliances that governments form to take international measures. My own political ideology is based on the notion that the world can be made stronger through international co-operation, and that our main concern should not be with domestic interests but international ones. I enjoy absorbing a wide variety of political opinions, and I follow current affairs in the UK and internationally with great interest.

    • Word count: 484
  14. Free essay

    Media a threat?

    We do, and how do we get hold of such information? through the media. If the government is doing something wrong, the media will tell us what is going on, and let me just emphasise that this is not a threat but is actually healthy criticism which helps the democratic government know the public's opinion. The media is there to enhance the public's awareness about governments, their doings and to express their opinions regarding current issues in politics. As we all know, there are many different Newspapers. Such as: 'La provincia', 'El pais', 'El mundo'. Now do you really think that all these Newspapers share the same view?

    • Word count: 400
  15. To what extend is fascism a blend of nationalism and socialism?

    Second, fascists' obsession of warfare has demonstrated the nationalist's characteristics within themselves. Fascism sees the interests of the nation as rivaling against other nations; therefore, there is a need to be engaged in warfare in order to protect the nation from expansionist nations and to maintain the nation's independence and self-determination of a people, especially in the Nazi form of fascism, they struggled to keep their race pure. More importantly, the love of warfare shows the fascists' pride of their nation and their desire of expressing the nation's superiority.

    • Word count: 954
  16. To what extent is feminism a single doctrine?

    This implies that women see themselves as inferior compare to men and they are not aware of such acceptance. Therefore, it is necessary for women to realise for themselves that they are not in fact inferior, before they could fight against such "otherness". All feminists see gender as a critical issue to the inequality imposed on women and believe that there should be no differences between genders. They accept that there are fundamental biological differences between men and women but these do not make men any superior than women. They believe as John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor stressed that men and women were born equal in terms of their rationality, judgement and intellect.

    • Word count: 814
  17. How Similar was Thatcherism To Traditional Conservatism?

    It has been argued though that the process of disengagement does contradict traditional conservatism in the idea of the organic society, which dictates that a nation is a single body and every citizen is interdependent on one another. However these measures were essentially a pragmatic and empiricist reaction to the troubles of the past of Britain, and were measures to sustain economic order, therefore Thatcher blended traditional and liberal values to restore the order, and within the CHNKWKS N�����TEXTTEXT&?FDPPFDPPBFDPCFDPCDSTSHSTSHF-STSHSTSH-F2SYIDSYIDPFSGP SGP dFINK INK hFBTEPPLC lFBTECPLC "FFONTFONT�FTSTRSPLC �F:PRNTWNPR*GgFRAMFRAM'K�TITLTITLL&DOP DOP ?L"rism was a modern day progression of traditiona How Similar was Thatcherism To Traditional Conservatism?

  18. Friedrich Nietzsche's Political Philosophies

    Were his auditors to embrace this untimely teaching, Zarathustra insists, they would be prepared finally to emerge from the shadow of the dead God and take their rightful place as the legislators of the future. In doing so, they would shed the burden imposed on them by the resentful, ascetic morality that they have inherited from its twin sources, Christianity and Platonism. Zarathustra's teaching of the �bermensch thus conveys the promise of a life predicated on a love of the body and an aspiration to noble values.

    • Word count: 892
  19. Is Labour Still Socialist Party?

    They do this by continuing with the welfare with policies such as child benefits and welfare to work programs. In 2008 Brown changed the top rate of income tax so that richer people will be charged more which will go towards more benefits for the poorer people. Because the labour party has been formed from trade unions it is good to workers therefore there are many workers rights. There is a minimum wage for workers which has been increased in 2008 to �5.73 an hour for over 22 year olds. This does not have to happen a company could set their own minimum wages but however because we have a socialist government they set them.

    • Word count: 891
  20. Are Humans Innately Evil or Good?

    They both have clashing and different opinions, but in my opinion I would have to agree with John Locke. Locke was born on August 29, 1632 in Wrington, England. He died on October 28, 1704. He was best known as an English philosopher and the author of Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Every human being is born good, they have a clean record, and they don't know anything. Originally we were all in a state of nature. Parents, friends, relatives, societies, and the community influence us to do what they do. As we tend to grow up we will see murdering, stealing, taking drugs, and fighting all around us.

    • Word count: 587
  21. Types of governments that exist:

    In a capitalist or free-market economy, people own their own businesses and property and must buy services for private use, such as healthcare 2. socialism(Norway) Socialists' governments own many of the larger industries and provide education, health and welfare services while allowing citizens some economic choices 3. Communism (Cuba) In a communist country, the government owns all businesses and farms and provides its people's healthcare, education and welfare. 4. Dictatorship (Iraq) Rule by a single leader who has not been elected and may use force to keep control.

    • Word count: 613
  22. World Bipolarity

    But this is where the similarities ended. The world split into two significantly different ideological factions, capitalism and communism. In this developed a sphere of influence where the western and democratic states would fall behind the USA and the communist states would be under the influence of the USSR. The cold war, which broke out straight after the second world war, was obviously a period of mutual distrust, raised tensions and conflict; though there was no actual fighting involved as neither party wanted to start a third world war just as soon as they had managed to resolve the second one.

    • Word count: 662
  23. Why is there increasing disillusionment with party politics in the UK?

    This effect is closely related to the idea of partisan dealignment - people start to identify less with the traditional main parties, and start to consider other options (or none at all). However, there is a flip-side to this. Due to the fact that there is, for the uneducated fellow, no discernable difference between Lib-Lab-Con, the average person starts to consider more minor, radical parties. This is, in my opinion, a good effect, for it makes the system more democratic.

    • Word count: 760
  24. Is the Conservative Party today still genuinely conservative?

    Critics of this reform, suggest that he has swayed too far from traditional Tory values and principles. Therefore, the purpose of this text, is not to agree or disagree with Social Conservatism, but to investigate whether this new brand of Conservatism is a little too far to the left to be branded 'conservative'. Many policies, particularly on the social level, have been changed by the 'Cameron Revolution'. In more ways than one, Cameron's policies are more akin to liberal policies than those of traditional conservatives.

    • Word count: 914
  25. To what extent has socialism been defined by its opposition to capitalism?

    It was therefore seen as revolutionary when Utopian Socialists, such as Robert Owen emerged, creating utopian communities where the emphasis was on sharing the accumulated wealth and getting rid of the exploitation that capitalists were advocating. Hence, groups like the Co-operative Society emerged. In contrast however, the likes of Marx and Engels believed the only way to overthrow the capitalist regime was through a revolution, which if necessary would be violent. This meant also destroying the class system to manifest the bourgeoisie and remove them, allowing equality irrespective of how people had lived before.

    • Word count: 807

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • This essay is aimed to discuss the meaning of ideology and it different uses and abuses to which it may be put in a politics

    "Conclusion, in my view as long as ideology exists there can never be a consensus among all as how people should live and view the world. Liberalism, Conservatism and Socialism are notable example of major ideologies in this world that employed by those who posses power. Due to the way the political process works, ideology can affect many areas of life, social equality is one of such area, which falls victim of changing perspectives and ideologies of those who posses power."

  • "Fascism is nothing more than an extreme form of Nationalism". Discuss

    "In conclusion fascism certainly is something more than an extreme form of nationalism. Whilst fascist regimes, particularly Nazi Germany, demonstrate a strong belief in nationalism, the extremity of actions demonstrates a different belief, a belief in racialism. Furthermore fascism is characterised by other key beliefs which are not shared by nationalists, such as struggle and leadership and elitism. These can be seen to be even more fundamental to fascism that nationalistic beliefs as different kinds of fascist regimes place different emphasis on nationalism, whereas leadership and struggle remain ideologically central regardless of the strand of fascism in question. The central themes of fascism and the ways they have been manifested in different countries indicates that whilst fascism may have some similarities to nationalism ultimately it is ideologically distinct."

  • "In order to find out how things really are, one must understand the filters through which one perceives the world." Discuss and evaluate this claim.

    "To come back to the claim made by the essay question it is quite clear that political, religious and cultural as well as intellectual filters play important roles in the way people perceive the world. "Things", here, could be issues, people and beliefs. The interaction between any person and the world in which he/she lives in is very complex. Therefore, the word perception should not be restricted to our five senses and the messages they send to the brain to be processed. Past experience, beliefs, the degree to which we can be objective as well as intellectual capabilities of analysis and reflection play important roles in the way we analyze and react to situations outside and inside ourselves. In conclusion the claim of the essay is a true one since it has been shown through the discussion the process in which our value system affects to a large extent our perception of the world."

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