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AS and A Level: Political Philosophy
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* When a bill reaches a committee it is placed on the committee's calendar. A bill can be referred to a subcommittee or considered by the committee as a whole. It is at this point that a bill is examined carefully and its chances for passage are determined. If the committee does not act on a bill, it is the equivalent of killing it. * Often, bills are referred to a subcommittee for study and hearings. Hearings provide the opportunity to put on the record the views of the executive branch, experts, other public officials, supporters and opponents of the legislation.
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http://www.ihonvbere.com/julius/2008/09/the-legislative-process-in-nigeria/ * The Courts and Rule of Law - The Nigerian constitution provides for an independent judiciary. In practice, the judiciary is subject to executive and legislative branch pressure, influence by political leaders at both the state and federal levels, and suffers from corruption and inefficiency. The regular court system comprises federal and state trial courts, state appeals courts, the Federal Court of Appeal, the Federal Supreme Court, and Shari'ah and customary courts of appeal for each state and for the federal capital territory of Abuja.
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We must control the faction problem before another war is the only option the people of South Africa have. Madison was especially concerned with the idea of political factions reaching a state of majority within the government and reaffirmed this belief in the Federalist Papers when he said, "Among the numerous advantages promised by a well-constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction. The friend of popular governments never finds himself so much alarmed for their character and fate as when he contemplates their propensity to this dangerous vice.
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And almost all mainstream ideologies can be regarded as variants of liberalism. * Liberal values/ideas of vital historical importance - central to development of British political tradition UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS AND VALUES OF LIBERALISM * Hall (1986) describes liberals as 'open-minded, tolerant, rational, freedom-loving people, sceptical of the claims of tradition and established authority, but strongly committed to the values of liberty, competition and individual freedom'. 19th century liberalism 'stood for individualism in politics, civil and political rights, parliamentary government, moderate reform, limited state intervention, and a private enterprise economy'. Widespread agreement over key liberal ideas/values - though not over their later development and interpretation.
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The measures of development taken are the size of support base, image of party, and electoral success. Since the introduction of the Fifth Republic by Charles de Gaulle in 1958, the governmental system of France has been a semi-presidential system, where both the president and the prime minister have equal power and legitimacy. This system has both "perils" and "virtues" (Linz 1990), which are, respectively, cohabitation and clear division of power. A president is directly elected for a five-year term.
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Finally, the extent of democracy will be assessed according to Dahl's definition given above. Timeline In 1945, nationalist leader Sukarno declared independence, fully recognized only in 1949 after five years of fighting against its former colonial rulers, the Netherlands. Several unsuccessful parliamentary governments collapsed due to the absence of a majority party, during what is now called the "liberal democratic" period in 1950-57 (Neher & Marlay, 1995). This period ended with "Guided Democracy", Sukarno's new form of government based on antiquated Indonesian tradition. After an unsuccessful alleged communist coup, Suharto overthrew Sukarno and installed himself as the second president in 1968, proclaiming a "New Order".
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Finally, the overall goal of the Nazi economic system was the preparation and mobilization for of war. Nonetheless, there do arise a few similarities between the US and Nazi responses to the Depression and the results they achieved. First, both Hitler and FDR had replaced political leaders who had proven incapable of managing the growing economic crisis facing the world during the 1930's. Much like the New Deal's FERA and WPA programs, Hitler also used public works projects, directed by the National Labor Service, to create jobs for the German people. However, unlike the US, very little support was given to citizens in terms of direct aid.
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To begin with an analysis of the role of William Ewart Gladstone seems sensible as he was, of course, the dominant Liberal figure of the age and therefore the orchestrator of many of the rationalisations of Liberal popularity. It is, however, easy to heap too much responsibility upon Gladstone as the hero of liberalism rather than Liberalism. It was, in fact, the prevailing liberal mood that allowed Gladstone to work as he did, and without which he would have been unable to make any headway at all.
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It is "the opium of the people." Those who practice religion may feel happy for a while, but eventually they will return to the exact same state as before. This point will be explained further later on in my essay. The second point that Marx argues from his ideology is that the need for illusions about the world stems from the material conditions under which people live. In a society where people are oppressed and exploited people will substitute the illusory happiness provided by religion for real happiness.
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and the critique of political economy is linked to a historical and philosophical conception of humanity and history. However, Marx's Capital abandons this metaphysical and philosophical outlook and the later critique is levelled exclusively at a specific situation that is capitalism, without claiming to be a universal anti-critique of the one-sidedness of bourgeois political economy. It could easily be said that a notion of sociology as political science is fundamental to Marxism and if we were to provide a generic definition of Marxism it could be that of a sociology conceived as political science, as a science of revolution.
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This said ideology pushes the U.S. people to mentally and emotionally separate themselves from the members of other countries. Furthermore, there are too divisions within the U.S. itself. The U.S. ideology creates "otherness." That is, it (ideology) points out specific groups of people as being negatively different. It is my full belief that the ideological systems and the creation of "otherness" by the powerful citizens of the U.S. are entirely unfair and immoral. In two sections, the first engaging ideology through Richard Wright's autobiographical novel, Black Boy, and the latter "otherness" through critics Chandra Mahonty, bell hooks, and Mae Gwendolyn Henderson, I will discourse the reasons as to how each is created and why they are erroneous.
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Why was the Dreyfus Affair so bitterly divisive in France? The Dreyfus Affair began in 1894 with the unjust conviction of Alfred Dreyfus, a French Artillery Officer
These were opposed by the Opportunists, the Radicals and Republicans. There was also the working class movement; the Socialists. Each of these political parties had varying policies and beliefs. The Orleanists, Legitimists and Nationalists, although grouped to the right, had differing beliefs. The Radicals differed from the Republicans and, these both differed from the Socialists. So it would be fair to say that there were political divisions apparent at the start of the Affair. What the Dreyfus Affair was able to do, however, was force these parties to become either a Dreyfusard in support of Dreyfus, or an Anti-Dreyfusard.
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Compare the views about the nature and development of Carl Rogers and George Kelly. To which of these therapists would you most likely recommend to an 18 year old friend, in need of counselling after a major life change?
In an aim to draw similarities and contrasts of both theories and to provide an independent account on which theory appears most suitable, a critical evaluation of these two revolutionary Psychologists will be attempted. To understand the many different theories of personality you must understand that personalities are unique. Everyone has different experiences, parents, and lives. These differences cause all people to view the world differently than the person next to them. There are various thoughts of how and when personalities develop and grow.
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These two philosophers therefore believe, like Feurbach (an extremely influential philosopher, especially on Marx) that philosophy must begin with the finite, material world as this is the only way that philosophical problems may be overcome; thought does not precede existence, existence precedes thought. For example in an article written by Marx titled 'The Jewish Question' the racist and stereotypical nature of the Jew is discussed. The majority of people at that time, under the Hegelian influence, would see with their 'idealist eyes' that the problem of Jews is in religious consciousness which could be resolved by establishing a new way of thinking.
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Finally, in this last section of the paper, it reviews the essay topic again, and I shall illustrate my opinion on the conflict between employee and employer, finally, I shall explain why organisation employer or owner can not manage their employees in a humane way. 2. About Marxism 2.1 Overview on Marxism 'Marxism, or Scientific Socialism, is the name given to the body of ideas first worked out by Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895). In their totality, these ideas provide a fully worked-out theoretical basis for the struggle of the working class to attain a higher form of human society--socialism.'1 Marx was a revolutionary who was against capitalism and actively promoted its overthrow.
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Mill's theory begins with a recognition that even with democracy there is a reasonable fear of a tyranny, the tyranny of the majority over a minority. To have a just and moral society, there must be safeguards against this potential threat, and Mill's theory is designed to protect against this threat. 3) Details of the theory a) Tyranny of the majority (& paternalism): A tyranny of the majority typically arises when the majority finds some feature of a minority objectionable and the majority decides to use their political power to restrict the minority in some way.
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Locke (1688) says, "that men, being once born, have a right to their preservation" (p. 250). As soon as a person is born he automatically has the right to try to preserve himself by any means possible, as long as he does not infringe on someone else's property. And that god gave humans the world and everything in it including the fruit it produces, and the animals it feeds. People have a right to all of it to preserve themselves. He (1688) then says that in order to preserve ourselves we need "a means to appropriate them some way or another"( p.
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Feuerbach said: 'God is to be understood as the essence of the human species, externalised and projected into an alien reality... What we believe of God is really true of our selves'. The essence of God is thus nothing but the projected essence of man, who is the true God. This would have played a vital role in forming Marx's ideas on religion being an unnecessary shield to reality, which simply prevents the Proletariat from finding out the true intentions of the Bourgeoisie.
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Act utilitarians think that we should do whatever act will bring about the most good and the least bad. Rule utilitarians think that we should follow rules that will bring about the greatest good and the least bad for everyone affected. Preference utilitarianism focuses on the inclination of the people involved. The act utilitarian believes that we cannot establish general rules because people and situations are all different. Problems for act utilitarianism include the following: We can't always know what is good for others. It takes too long to work out what to do. We cannot teach others how to act if there are no rules to follow.
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And what are some of the implications of these differences for the overall field of organizational learning? The Normative Dimension The answer to the first question must be that one and perhaps the most salient distinguishing characteristic of public/political-sector bodies is that they are normative at their core. For organizations in the private sector, utility and efficiency are universally accepted as primary values.
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The study of international or rather global politics, seeks to provide an account of politics in the broadest domain.
It is only when the community responds to the state and the state responds to the community in which it rules that the discussion of political power can take place in terms of sovereignty" (1986:21). The importance of what Hinsley said lies in the fact that sovereignty cannot exists without a state and will not be found in societies in which there is no state structure. Sovereignty is a political idea, a form of legitimation, a way of thinking about power and rule (Hinsley 1986:25).
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So in a capitalist society the markets coordinate and control the economic decisions. The main goal of the economic entities within these societies is economic gain in the form of wages, profits, interest and rent. The management skills are also guided by self interest incentives (Dahl 1998: 166 - 172). So from a theoretical perspective liberal democracy and capitalism appear quite compatible based on the notion of freedom, since capitalism provides the economic conditions necessary for the allocation and distribution of the freedoms of the liberal democratic state.
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That is to say, a constant expansion of the market becomes a necessity for capitalist production. (Karl Marx, 1867) Having recognised that the economic system is the foundation on which the political superstructure is erected, Marx devoted most attention to the study of this economic system. Marx's principal work, Capital, is devoted to a study of the economic system of modern, i.e., capitalist, society. Classical political economy, before Marx, evolved in England, the most developed of the capitalist countries. Adam Smith and David Ricardo, by their investigations of the economic system, laid the foundations of the labour theory of value.
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Furthermore, when the Athenians suggest to the Melians that they should become allies with them, against the Spartans, the Melians state: '...We trust that the gods will give us fortune as good as yours...'3 In contrast, the Athenians dismiss the protection of the gods, and state: 'This kind of attitude is not going to be of much help to you in your absurd conquest for safety at the moment'.4 Thucydides portrays the Athenians in an arrogant light, which suggests that they will get their comeuppance for such sacrilegious opinions.
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Scholars have also conducted a number of studies to discover if there are any hidden reasons such as economic development, trade, alliances etc, to explain why democracies do not go to war against one another. However they concluded that democracy and not any other factor, was the best explanation for the lack of wars between democratic states. Supporters of the "democratic peace" theory attempt to explain the lack of war between democratic states in several ways. Firstly they claim that democratic leaders are restrained from going to war with other democratic countries because of their people's reluctance to accept the human and financial costs of war.
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