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AS and A Level: Political Philosophy
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Herzberg’s theory is better than Maslow’s theory as an explanation of what motivates workers.
To do this I constructed a questionnaire relating to both theory's (see appendix 5). I then asked 31 people my questionnaire and from these I obtained many results relating to my hypothesis, using these results I have drawn graphs and tables in order to show the appropriate data more clearly (see appendix 6). I then analysed the results - relating to Maslow's and Herzberg's theory to see which one was a better explanation as to the motivation of workers. From my results and by using the graphs I drew I can tell that the most popular reason as to why do people work is because they need the money.
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A slogan which could interpret this theory fundamentally is "If you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours." Utilitarianism plainly states that maximising happiness is the best way to go about living our lives. This theory, without investigating it deeply is clearly the best moral theory, maximising happiness? Surely that is the best way of living, because if everyone is happy, then that is a good way to live. But if we really look into the theory we will see the problems that arise from trying to maximise happiness.
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The early 1860's again saw calls for social and electoral reforms, which were eventually granted under the Disraelian government. Now for the first time certain constituencies had a majority of working men as potential voters, and to this ends the first working men, with the support of the London's Working Men's Association, sought positions in parliament in the election of 1968. They were all heavily defeated. After this in 1969 the Labour Representation League, backed by some of the Unions, was formed to promote the working class vote without party influence.
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How did Marx explain the collapse of Capitalism and how did the ideas of Lenin and Trotsky develop Marxist theory?
This reflected the belief that the production of the means of subsistence is the most crucial of all human activities. Since humans cannot survive without food, water, shelter, the way in which these are produced conditions all other aspects of life; in short, 'social being determines consciousness'. Marx gave this theory its most succinct expression by suggesting that social consciousness and the 'legal and political superstructure', arise from the 'economic base', the real foundation of society. This 'base' consists essentially of the 'mode of production' or economic system- feudalism, capitalism, socialism and so on.
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This dramatic and rapid shift in party fortunes occurred in France as a result of many combined factors. A superficial examination of the political systems of the Western world might very well lead us to assumes that Communism had simply become an unacceptable ideology in the modern age. This argument certainly has some validity, as the increasing wealth of the Western world and the continuing antagonism between the Communist Soviet Union and the democratically organised capitalist West exerted a powerful influence on all post-war political thought in the West.
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Both the Creational and Darwin's theory have merit. There is extensive evidence to support Darwin's theory. In the last two hundred years many skeletons that link past and present species together have been found. These fossils suggest ways that a new species evolved from the previous. Darwin's theory does not explain how life on earth came to be it simply states that organisms evolve. The is however, other scientific evidence showing that a plethora of one-celled life forms suddenly exploded on the earth roughly 4 billion years ago.
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Liberalism has come to be the dominant ideology of the industrialised West, its main themes are: The individual, Freedom, Reason, Justice and Toleration. For liberals the belief of the primacy of the individual is the characteristic theme and has had important implications for liberal thought. Conservatism aspires for the preservation of the best in established society, and opposes radical change, a central and recurrent them of conservatism is its defence of tradition, its desire to maintain established customs and institutions.
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The child succeeds this task if he understands that Maxi believes that the chocolate is where he left it, thereby attributing a false belief to Maxi; the child is able to represent not just the state of the world, but also Maxi's representation of the world. This leads us to ask the obvious developmental question of how this concept of belief and therefore the theory of mind, is acquired. The suggestion that it is learnt is dubious, because of the particularly abstract nature of mental states; children are eventually able to make predictions about mental states that they cannot hear, feel or see.
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What does comparative study of welfare provision in Europe tell us about the welfare system in Britain?
Bismarck's basic idea was that people who were in work would pay into a scheme and this money would be distributed back to the poor (Ginsburg, 1993), he introduced the world's first State Social Insurance Scheme in 1883 (Bryson, 1992). The welfare system was about the basic needs of the state, with individuals helping themselves, the state would only intervene if it was absolutely necessary (Ginsburg, 1993). It was upon this base that Germany placed the future of welfare provision.
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For example, in 1991, in Tiananme Square, many Chinese students objected to this heavily censored regime and there was uproar that led to the death of many students, one even being ran over by a tank. All that for freedom of speech. In Britain, we have freedom of speech to an extent, in fact compared to China, we have huge freedom, it is a liberty we take for granted. But should we have that much freedom of speech? Here is an example; there is a political party that has headquarters near you.
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Moreover, the fourth striking characteristic noted by academics is that democracy represents political stability8. For Lipjphart, "consociational democracy means government by elite cartel designed to turn a democracy with a fragmented political culture into a stable democracy"9. 'Grand coalitions' would be used to prevent cultural diversity from being transformed into "explosive cultural segmentation"10. Politics, by its very nature, feeds on conflicts arising from social heterogeneity11 and the stability of divided societies often depends on whether the elites of rival subcultures are willing and able to reject confrontation in favour of compromise12. A grand coalition enables political leaders of all the segments of the plural society to jointly govern the country13.
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Secondly, religion often appears to lend sacred support to the current social order, and in doing so reinforces prohibitions against actions which would challenge those in power. For instance, in medieval Europe, the Church taught that the various unequal "estates of the realm" - monarch, barons and bishops - were God's creation. This meant that attempts to change the social order would have not been merely an act of treason against the monarch but also a blasphemous rejection of God's plan, punishable by eternal damnation.
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A cotton worker turned journalist, Joseph Burgess, wrote an article on the need for an ILP. He believed this strongly and attempted to make it a reality by pursuing it. Burgess had many sympathisers on this idea and when the Trade Union Congress met in 1892 a conference was organised by an Arrangements committee. At this meeting in Bradford people were very optimistic of this new idea and it was believed that it was optimistic in itself.
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but not over the fluctuations of the business cycle; and the efficiency of modern production methods had produced slums in the midst of abundance (Pious). They described all human history as the attempt of men and women to develop and apply their potential for creativity for the purpose of controlling the forces of nature so as to improve the human condition. In this ongoing effort to develop its productive forces, humanity has been remarkably successful; history has been the march of progress.
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Their sight is limited to the back wall of the cave which depicts figures of shadows going back and forth, created by the flames directly behind them. Their reality consists of these shadows and they assume that there can never be anything beyond the shadows. Then one day a particular mind, not fully convinced, finds a way to break free of these bonds that bind them and turns their head around. Consequently, they will distinguish the fire and the figures marching back and forth before it.
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To what extent did the key political ideas directly Influence change and development in Your chosen period of study?
Now machines would signify a better and more stable economic life for everybody. Or would they? One of the most prominent effects of the industrial revolution was that now people had lost their jobs to machines then surely they would not be needed by the owners of the means of production. It would only take a small number of men to operate the machines, surely the rest would have to look elsewhere for work? Not long before a German Sociologist and Historian named Karl Marx had warned against the dangers of the industrial revolution for the workers.
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Syndicalism was a form of revolutionary trade unionism. It was strong in France, Italy and Spain. In France, the Confédération Generale des Travailleurs was dominated by anarchists before 1914. The same can be said for the Confederacion Nacional de Trabajadores in Spain. During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, the CNT had over two million members. Anarcho-syndicalist movements emerged in Latin America in the early 20th Century, particularly in Argentina and Uruguay. The Mexican Revolution, led by Emiliano Zapata, was influenced by syndicalist ideas. Anarchism in Spain and Latin America soon fell victim to authoritarianism and repression.
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It will also be argued that although these factors are significant, they alone cannot explain the rise of the modern state system. To reach this conclusion, this essay will first outline the key factors, paying attention to their interrelation and then show how ultimately, the rise of the modern state system is a result of a combination of both long-term developments and key historical events. Feudalism was the system of political organisation in Medieval Europe. Very different from the modern state system, it was characterised by a division power and a complex hierarchy of power headed by the Pope, followed by the king, lords, vassals and serfs at the bottom.
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Another feature of representative democracy is that it is not continuous; this means that the public do not have an ongoing dialogue with the government. This is because of the possibility of representative democracy being undermined. This is because the public have elected a group of professional politicians to make decisions on their behalf. An example of this would be that the public only get involved with politics when it is time for general elections or referendums. One final feature of representative democracy is that it is mediated; this means that the public do not have to involve themselves in continuous meetings to improve their society.
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Yet the earth is a closed system with limited and exhaustible wealth. Human beings, through the aggressive pursuit of material wealth; regarding energy as ?income? that is topped up rather than ?natural capital?, have upset the ?balance of nature? and are therefore facing extinction. Ecologism therefore tends to challenge anthropocentrism and favour ecocentrism. There is a significant difference between how ?shallow ecologists? and ?deep ecologists? interpret ecological theory.
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This would reduce the inequalities reflected in the unequal structure of society, therefore upholding justice and fairness. Karl Marx believed that absolute equality based on ownership of the means of production would help in the creation of a classless society. This is evidence that some socialist have been committed to equality of outcome. However Marx didn?t completely support the theory of absolute equality. This is evident in the theory of needs satisfaction where rewards should be distributed ?to each according to his needs?. Here Marx shows recognition that humans have the same basic needs - however some need more than others.
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This gives little credibility to nationalism as a theoretical construct. However, although national sentiment, undoubtedly, plays a large role in nationalism, to describe it in these terms alone is to be defining patriotism. A certain bed rock of core themes can be found, to which nationalism?s ideological strands belong too. Thus nationalism can be said to be more than simple a psychological phenomenon. A concrete set of core themes can be attributed to nationalism. Out of them, The Nation is the most overt: the belief in the nation as the central principle of political organisation ? be it through language, religion or ethnicity.
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This drop in support is indicative of a drop in relevance. Furthermore where socialist parties are in opposition, as in France and Italy, they are in disarray ? as is Germany's Social Democratic party (SDP), despite their being part of the ruling grand coalition. Even Sweden's out-of-power Socialists, the country's dominant party for a century, have failed to capitalise on the recent economic crisis that would usually allow socialist parties to thrive. The United Kingdom may be the exception, although the pro-market Labour party shaped by Tony Blair have moved from socialism into a more centre right position and were
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