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Review on Anarchism - 'A Government which governs least governs best'.

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Introduction

Review on Anarchism 'A Government which governs least governs best' The word 'Anarchy' is derived from the Greek word and literally means 'without rule'. The term Anarchism has been used since the French Revolution to imply the critical breakdown of the civilized order. Anarchists advocate the abolition of law and order by government but a belief in social order should take its place. It was not until Pierre-Joseph Proudhon declared he was an anarchist, that the word was clearly acknowledged with a positive and systematic set of political ideas. Anarchism is unusual amongst political ideologies' explain Heywood. It has in fact never succeeded in winning power at national level. There is no society or nation shaped or reshaped by the anarchist principles. Therefore Anarchism as an ideology has less importance compared to the other ideologies, conservatism, Liberalism, Socialism. Anarchists consistently expressed that the traditional societies are of non-hierarchical nature. Anarchism's objective is to overthrow the state and dismantle all forms of political authority which is unrealistic. Moreover, most view the notion of a stateless society as, at best, utopian dream. Anarchists do not believe in corrupting the influence on the political system including political party formation, seeking public office and standing for elections. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore he believed that people have a natural propensity to organise their own lives in a peaceful manner. Anarchists have sympathy for Jean-Jacques Rousseau's words 'Man was born free, yet everywhere he is in chains.' Ashamed utopianism lies at the heart of anarchism whereby there is a belief in the natural goodness of human kind. Forthcoming fro this social order arises naturally not from law and order. This is the reason why anarchist conclusions are based on views on human nature, which are optimistic. An example of this is the collectivist anarchists who emphasise the human mind has a small capacity consisting of social and mutual behaviour, while individualist anarchists draw attention to the importance of progressive human reason. Anarchists thus, have been attracted to the ideas of non-western religions such as Buddhism and Taoism, which stress interdependence. Nevertheless, anarchism is not wholly based on 'human goodness'. Firstly anarchist theories are complex on the ideas of human nature. Human beings can be selfish, competitive and as well as cooperative and social. Anarchists secondly have given attention to social institutions as they have human nature. They look upon human nature as 'plastic', in a sense that it is shaped by the social, political and economic circumstances within which people live. Collectivist anarchists support common ownership, while individual anarchists have approved the market. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore anarchists classify themselves with the poor and oppressed and are required to carry out a social revolution in the name of 'exploited masses' in which both capitalism and state have been swept away. Nevertheless, the tensions within anarchism are exposed by the economic structure of life. Many anarchists acknowledge a connection with socialism, based on inequality and common dislike for property. Both factions of anarchist traditions, which are individualist and collectivist, have distinguished difference based on economy. Individual anarchists support the market and private economy while collectivist anarchists advocate economy based upon cooperation and collective ownership. Despite this difference, anarchists agree about their distaste for economic systems. All anarchists oppose ' managed capitalism' that flourished in western countries after 1945. Collective groups argue that state intervention leads to exploitation gives capitalism a human face, while individual anarchists suggest that state intervention creates an economies dominated by both private and public monopolies. Anarchism has been united due to their rejection of soviet-style 'state socialism'. Individuals argue for a planned economy due to their rejection to the violation of property rights and individual freedom. On the other hand collectivist argue that 'state socialism' is a negation as it replaces the capitalist class as the main source of exploitation. All kinds of anarchists have an economic preference in which free individuals deal with their own affairs without state ownership. Nevertheless, this has permitted them to approve a variety of diverse economic systems. ...read more.

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