• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Revolutionary Movements.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Revolutionary Movements Question 1 With the 20th century, many new revolutionary movements have come into the focus of world politics. Of these, fascism is one of the most difficult to put into a proper context. Many scholars through the years have tried to place fascism and answer the seemingly simple question of "What is Fascism?" It can be described in several versions depending on the scholar. The most familiar version is the right/left idea, while the democratic/non-democratic and industrialized/non-industrialized models are increasingly popular in the understanding of fascism. All of these models need to rely on a concise set of criteria for it's analysis, as well as how these criteria can be proven. According to the primary evidence, the democratic/non-democratic and industrialized/non-industrialized models distinguished fascism, and it provides a paradigmatic example for revolutions in the 20th century by its descriptive characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the movement. The first problem with classifying the revolutionary movements as right or left tends to fall victim to the term itself. According to James Gregor, he quotes Laqueur to make this point true. "Laqueur, for example, has maintained that 'The terms right and left, although not altogether useless, become more problematical as one moves away in time and space from nineteenth-century- Europe (Gregor, Phoenix pg. ...read more.

Middle

However, the race hatred was never a part of fascist doctrine. "In fact, the official Manifesto of Fascist Racism, published in July 1938 maintained that 'to say that human races exist is not to say apriori that there exist superior or inferior races, but only to say that there exist different human races. (Gregor, Phoenix, pg 8)'" The dynamic definition of fascism that is the most plausible is the idea that fascism happens when any group of people have a notion that they are being treated inferior in a world where they are the minority. This is the one characteristic that can be seen in every fascist themed movement from National Socialism to Marcus Garvy. Although a definition of fascism can be reached, it is difficult to understand how well the fascist influence in the 20th century is able to predict trends of fascism that may be forming in the 21st century. The best conclusion that can be reached is that there are movements in history that are specific to the times in which they are a part of. Beyond that, the debate on what fascism is will continue well into the 21st century. Question 2 One of the fascinating characteristics of the study of political revolution is the notion of ideological decay and pathological behavior. ...read more.

Conclusion

The pathological decay of the "leftist" governments seems to be much more of a reality. This is because there is no mention of the use of violence as a subversive tool in the communist manifesto. The need to employ violence as a legitimate state building tool came about after it was realized that the government and the police force in Russia was not going to die away as was thought to happen after the revolution. The notion of an ideological decay is seen with the advent of Elija Muhammad's Black Muslims. Thanks to the "failure" of Marcus Gravy, a new order was necessary to the formation of an abnormal religious fundamentalism. This fundamentalism relied of a very different interpretation of the Koran, so although it is not a decay of fascist doctrine, and the movement itself was not fascist, an ideological decay can be seen through the specter of the Black Muslims. Although there are many theories on what the changes were in the "fascist" regimes through the 20th century, the idea of ideological decay seems to happen in almost all of these regimes, even the ones that only slightly resemble fascist, such as the Black Muslims. The use of violence as a political tool, and the fall of grand ideological claims seem to be a hallmark of "half-baked" and "imported" fascist regimes throughout the world. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Political Philosophy section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Political Philosophy essays

  1. Similarities and differences between 21st century religious fundamentalism and 20th century European Fascism

    and then Grand Ayatollah. 4Fascism is based upon the cult of personality built around its leaders and it is effectively crafted to exploit this cult. For instance, Hitler effectively cultivated the Fuhrer cult through Nazi propaganda machine under the expertise of Goebbels and through films such as 'Triumph of Will'

  2. Main features of fascism

    Racism Heroism was part of the fascist's ideology and they educated their people according to that idea. A fascist hero would want to die as he was taught it is the best reward to have a heroic life and pushing themselves to death and others with them.

  1. How revolutionary were Lutheran and Calvinist theories of authority?

    However, 'Martin Luther is best known as the most influential figure in the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century.'2 Luther is famous for nailing his Ninety-five Thesis on Indulgences to the door of the Roman Catholic Church in Wittenburg and is credited with launching the Protestant Reformation.

  2. In what ways is Fascism Totalitarian in Nature?

    Both Fascism and Totalitarianism accept the need for the will of the people to be behind a regime, for it to be successful.

  1. Nigeria Country Study

    * All People's Party (APP) * All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA) * Communist Party of Nigeria (CPN) * Democratic Alternative (DA) * Democratic Socialist Movement (DSM) * Fresh Democratic Party (FDP) * Masses Movement of Nigeria (MMN) * National Conscience Party (NCP) * National Democratic Party (NDP)

  2. Assess critically Marx's distinction between ideology and science

    [3] Unleash the power! - pleads Feuerbach: "Every limitation of reason, or of human nature in general, rests on a delusion, an error ... every being is in itself infinite; it carries its God - that which is the highest being to it - within itself."

  1. The development of fascist doctrine.

    The First Fascism Before the advent of World War I Mussolini had already formulated a body of social and political convictions that persisted with remarkable stability throughout his political life. It was a socialism informed of, and transformed by, elements found in the thought of Pareto, Sorel and Michels and

  2. Russia's Political Party System as an Obstacle to Democratization

    The Yabloko Party and, to a lesser extent, Zhirinovsky's Bloc are representative of this trend. But they are also emblematic of the weakness of supply-side parties as a basis for a stable party system. Both parties have managed to match their message to a portion of the electorate, but now

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work