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Revolutionary Movements.

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Revolutionary Movements Question 1 With the 20th century, many new revolutionary movements have come into the focus of world politics. Of these, fascism is one of the most difficult to put into a proper context. Many scholars through the years have tried to place fascism and answer the seemingly simple question of "What is Fascism?" It can be described in several versions depending on the scholar. The most familiar version is the right/left idea, while the democratic/non-democratic and industrialized/non-industrialized models are increasingly popular in the understanding of fascism. All of these models need to rely on a concise set of criteria for it's analysis, as well as how these criteria can be proven. According to the primary evidence, the democratic/non-democratic and industrialized/non-industrialized models distinguished fascism, and it provides a paradigmatic example for revolutions in the 20th century by its descriptive characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the movement. The first problem with classifying the revolutionary movements as right or left tends to fall victim to the term itself. According to James Gregor, he quotes Laqueur to make this point true. "Laqueur, for example, has maintained that 'The terms right and left, although not altogether useless, become more problematical as one moves away in time and space from nineteenth-century- Europe (Gregor, Phoenix pg. ...read more.


However, the race hatred was never a part of fascist doctrine. "In fact, the official Manifesto of Fascist Racism, published in July 1938 maintained that 'to say that human races exist is not to say apriori that there exist superior or inferior races, but only to say that there exist different human races. (Gregor, Phoenix, pg 8)'" The dynamic definition of fascism that is the most plausible is the idea that fascism happens when any group of people have a notion that they are being treated inferior in a world where they are the minority. This is the one characteristic that can be seen in every fascist themed movement from National Socialism to Marcus Garvy. Although a definition of fascism can be reached, it is difficult to understand how well the fascist influence in the 20th century is able to predict trends of fascism that may be forming in the 21st century. The best conclusion that can be reached is that there are movements in history that are specific to the times in which they are a part of. Beyond that, the debate on what fascism is will continue well into the 21st century. Question 2 One of the fascinating characteristics of the study of political revolution is the notion of ideological decay and pathological behavior. ...read more.


The pathological decay of the "leftist" governments seems to be much more of a reality. This is because there is no mention of the use of violence as a subversive tool in the communist manifesto. The need to employ violence as a legitimate state building tool came about after it was realized that the government and the police force in Russia was not going to die away as was thought to happen after the revolution. The notion of an ideological decay is seen with the advent of Elija Muhammad's Black Muslims. Thanks to the "failure" of Marcus Gravy, a new order was necessary to the formation of an abnormal religious fundamentalism. This fundamentalism relied of a very different interpretation of the Koran, so although it is not a decay of fascist doctrine, and the movement itself was not fascist, an ideological decay can be seen through the specter of the Black Muslims. Although there are many theories on what the changes were in the "fascist" regimes through the 20th century, the idea of ideological decay seems to happen in almost all of these regimes, even the ones that only slightly resemble fascist, such as the Black Muslims. The use of violence as a political tool, and the fall of grand ideological claims seem to be a hallmark of "half-baked" and "imported" fascist regimes throughout the world. ...read more.

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