• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The principal problems membership of the EU has brought to the regions of Britain.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

This essay then attempts to highlight some of the principal problems membership of the EU has brought to the regions of Britain and the impact Community policies designed to lessen these problems have had. It also endeavours to show how membership of the EU has affected traditional national government policies implemented to reduce regional disparities. Probably the most significant impact membership of the European Union has had on regional development in the UK is regards a deepening of the north-south divide. Although only politically recognised in the 1980s this divide has a history that stretches back to the original location of major manufacturing activity in the north of the UK. Beginning with the extraction of coal to fuel the industrial revolution, this acted as a catalyst which initiated a process of cumulative causation in northern areas and consequently led to the development of shipbuilding, textile, iron and steel and port-based activities. It was industries such as these that constituted the springboard for British expansion abroad and dominated the functionality of the regions major conurbations (Champion and Townsend, 1990). according to EU sources the south-east recorded a GDP per capita 30 per cent above the EU average in 1988, whilst regions in the north averaged 10 per cent below EU levels (Wise and Gibb, 1993). ...read more.

Middle

it is important to realise the extent of the national north-south divide, in both social and structurally economic terms, pre-membership of the European Union, before the damaging effects which inclusion offers the north can be truly appreciated. Immediately upon joining the EC in 1973 the national north-south divide was exacerbated and extended to a European level. Not only was the north distant from the concentrated hub of growth in the south-east of the country it was now geographically peripheral to the core of Europe and its status as such had been compounded. However, it is since the Single European Act of 1986 that the problem of increased peripherality has manifested itself as unequal levels of regional development in the UK. wwag agw esagags ayag agba nag kcag aguk. wwag agw esagag The Single European Act provided the legal muscle that made the target of a Single European Market by 1992 a realistic possibility (Franklin, 1990). It prevented the creation of new and began a process of harmonisation for existing legislation (including taxation and excise duties etc.) aimed at stabilising the Community's internal market and increasing the mobility of capital, labour and goods (Minshull, 1990). Consequently, a new European trading bloc has been created in which competition between companies (and countries) ...read more.

Conclusion

This failure is still predominantly attributable to the woeful lack of capital in the structural funds, a factor that is seen to be inextricably linked with the overfunding of the Common Agricultural Policy. Another reason that explains its apparent ineffectiveness is however related to the subversive activities of (the UK) government and their treatment of the funds. Whereas the structural funds are supposed to supplement national government grants to problem regions the UK government has in many cases been solely utilising EU aid, justifying the decision via reference to the large UK contribution to the CAP and the budgetary deficit it leaves (Financial Times, 1991, Hitiris, 1991, Times, 1991, Marks, 1992, Financial Times, 1993). The conflict between the EU and UK over this matter has been so intense that "Ministers have been warned over [a loss of] �1 billion EC aid" (Financial Times, 1993, p8a) if they do not start conforming to the rules and matching EU allocations. However, although the EU in the SEA (and in practice) have tried to introduce policies/funds to "reduce disparities between the various regions and the backwardness of the least-favoured regions" (SEA cited Franklin, 1990, p70) the conflict that exists between the notions of (interventionist) regional policy and the operation of a neoclassical market place represents a dichotomy that is difficult to resolve and that, consequently, has important implications for the UK and in particular its north. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level European Union section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level European Union essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    "'A troublesome partner.' Using examples, to what extent would you say this comment accurately ...

    4 star(s)

    This was indeed a time when Margaret Thatcher was a supporter of the EU, 'I would fear for our future if we were to withdraw.'2 The Callaghan Labour Government, who presided over the Britain's post-war economic nadir with the 'winter of discontent,' according to Bradbury (1996)

  2. A clear explanation of key underpinning economic theories relevant to the EU.

    *France, with its population around 58.3 million differs from each and every other member state. The official language of France is French, with many minor languages spoken, Arabic, German, Portuguese. Over 55% of French people identify them selves as being Catholic and around 10% visit the church regularly.

  1. To What Extent Does the EU Display a 'Democratic Deficit'?

    can be carried out at a national level by member states' legislatures. In the UK, in the House of Commons, there is a European Scrutiny Committee which considers all EU legislation and its likely impact, and brings legislation it feels is important to the attention of the House as a debate item.

  2. Explain the process by which EU law is made and the process by which ...

    or has/is infringing the law it can refer the matter to the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which can result in a judgement against the member state. Additionally, the EC has powers to investigate and prevent monopolies and anti-competitive trade behaviours, such as price-fixing.

  1. How Member States can derogate from the trading conditions governed by European Community (EC) ...

    The penguin Companion to the European Union, p.11. 2 European Community Treaty (changed from EEC November 1st 1993 via Treaty on European Union) 3 Commission v Luxembourg & Belgium (Cases 2 and 3/62) [1962] ECR 425 4 Old Articles 31-33 were repealed by the Treaty of Amsterdam 1997 5 Co-Frutta v Amministrazione delle Finanze dello Stato (Case 193/85)

  2. Why is Britain hesitating about membership of EMU and what are the main issues?

    The sheer magnitude of the British Empire also influenced the feeling of superiority in Britain. At one point, the British Empire spanned 1/4 of the world's population, exporting culture, language and its people. Hailed as founders of the New World, Great Britain held possessions throughout most of North America (until

  1. Becoming part of Trading Blocs.

    day, which is enough to pay for hospitals, doctors, schools, teachers and police, still leaving money for possible tax cuts. One advantage that it has got however is that it is keeping countries within the trading bloc stable, which will be beneficial to everyone in some way or another in relation to trade.

  2. An assessement of the impact of the lawyers' establishment directive.

    * Nederlandse Orde van Advocaten, not dated, EU Advocaten, Wet en Regelgeving, https://www.balienet.nl/NOVA/NovVade.nsf/..... * Paterson, I, Fink M, Ogus, A et al., (2003) "Economic impact of regulation in the field of liberal professions in different Member States", http://europa.eu.int/comm/competition/publications/prof_services/prof_services_ihs_part_1.pdf [downloaded on 12 April 2003].

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work