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AS and A Level: Trade Unions
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The final push for the strike to take place was when it was announced that the Yorkshire pit, Cortonwood, was only the first in a wide ranging programme that would result in 20 pit closures and job losses for over 20,000 miners. And so on 5th March 1984 miners all over Yorkshire took strike action. The bloodiest battle between the police and the pickets happened at the Orgreave coking plant in May 1984.
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However, trade union movements in Australia are confronting multiple challenges. Among the adversities that union leaders face they are pressing organizational problems: union membership is eroding due to structural changes in the economy and society, unfavorable political and institutional conditions make organizing even more difficult, and attempts to attract and represent new social groups remain inefficient. De-unionization and its consequences for collective bargaining and the political clout of union movements has become a problem acknowledged nation wide. Analysis * Comparative studies stressed the shift to bargaining decentralization, labor market deregulation, and inflexibility of production as major changes to current industrial relations changes.
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The report also recommended that the Government subsidy should be withdrawn and the miners' wages should be reduced. The month in which the report was issued also saw the mine-owners publishing new terms of employment. These new procedures included an extension of the seven-hour working day, district wage-agreements, and a reduction in the wages of all miners. Depending on a variety of factors, the wages would be cut by between 10% and 25%. The mine-owners announced that if the miners did not accept their new terms of employment then from the first day of May they would be locked out of the pits.
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A trade union is a voluntary organisation which employees are free to join if they wish. There may be a subscription charge depending on size; it varies from a very large association to a small association. Trade unions offer a range benefits and advisory services to members, represent their members during disciplinary or grievance procedures and aim to protect and improve pay and conditions of employment. They approach the government about introducing laws, which will benefit employees. Staff associations do not automatically have the same legal rights as independent trade unions, although many do. They may just provide an informal meeting ground for employers and employees and often have a similar role to a works council, where employees are involved in management and decision-making.
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An example of this is in 1984 when a miners strike threatened the steel workers job. The unions were very important for workers in the coal industry because conditions were very poor as they were working for long hours underground with nothing to protect them from things falling from above them etc. Because the mines were privately owned they were nationalised in 1914 because of the war to break down the differences in conditions and pay to make the miners happier so there would be no problems during the war.
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In recent years, the topic of homosexuality and gay and lesbian marriages has also become prominent in American politics. The question of whether these marriages, also sometimes referred to as "civil unions," should be legalized has become a pressing issue, and one that has only begun to test the limits and limitations of the US Constitution. The notion that such a thing as sodomy could ever be legalized is causing civil distress and has become quite a point of contention for countless Americans. For, on the one hand, many argue that allowing such marriages would corrupt the morals and society of the United States, yet others respond that Americans should all have the equal opportunity to lead happy and fulfilled lives.
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Child labor in the factories was not only common, but necessary for a family's income. Children as young as five or six manned machines or did jobs such as sweeping floors to earn money. It was dangerous, and they were often hurt by the large machinery. No laws prevented the factories from using these children, so they continued to do so. Technology improvements continued to reduce the demand for skilled labor. With an abundance of new immigrants willing to work, and no laws protecting a worker's rights, businesses disregarded the lives of the individuals. The first large national labor organization to become popular was the Knights of Labor.
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During the war Britain could not compete with countries such as Japan and the U.S.A who began selling their goods into British markets. The price of English coal dropped immensely the government were not helping the working class. In 1919 The Sankey commission recommended that mines stay under government control, but in 1921 the mines were returned to the mine owners. This was bad news for the miners and they called it black Friday. In 1925 there was a government subsidy for nine months to keep up miners wages.
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Often, not necessarily, this includes different skills Fire Brigades Union (FBU) General unions These unions recruit members from all industries and types of employer, and across the whole range of skills and types of work The General Municipal Boilermakers and Allied Trade Union (GMB) White-collar unions These unions attract members who tend to be office rather than direct manufacturing production workers, hence 'white-collar' rather than 'blue-collar' of the traditional stereotype of the factory worker The National Union of Teachers (NUT); Banking Insurance and Finance Union (BIFU) Types of industrial action by trade unions: * GO SLOW The workforce keeps on working but at the absolute minimum pace to avoid bing subject to legitimate disciplinary action.
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Women in World War One - Describe the employment opportunities of women in Britainat the outbreak of the war?
Employment opportunities opened up in the fields of Domestic Services, Textiles and Sweated trades. The war also opened up opportunities for high qualified women and women in the armed forces as many organizations such as the Voluntary Aid Detachments (VAD) and The First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) were started for the first time which increased potential opportunities for women. Similarly organizations were set up such as the 'Work for Women fund' which helped women who were made redundant before the war to get there jobs back during the outbreak.
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Explain fully and clearly the importance of negotiation within industrial relations to resolve disputes
It is important to negotiate disputes for many reasons. It is important not to disrupt the services that are provided for the public. The fire fighting service has now been affected which is dangerous as peoples lives are at risk. Negotiations make the workforce happy which means they will do a better job and become more efficient. The government want this because the economy will improve, as companies will have high production levels. It is important for government to negotiate disputes, as they will have a better perception from the public.
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The government managed to weaken the power of trade unions through successive legislation made in 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986 and 1988. The two most significant acts were the 1980 and 1982 Acts. The 1980 ("Prior") Employment Act, although produced in conjunction with the trader unions so not as hard hitting as preceding Acts narrowed the definition of Lawful picketing and secondary action. The 1982 ("Tebbit)
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