• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19

Transformation of the U.S. Hegemony in Europe through NATO after the Cold War

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

M. E. T. U DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THE MAKING OF EUROPEAN SECURITY (Prof. Dr. Mustafa T�RKES) Transformation of the U.S. Hegemony in Europe through NATO after the Cold War Prepared by Sinan Tas Mar 29th, 2006 CONTENTS Contents Abstract 1 1. Introduction 1 2. United States' Security Hegemony in Europe in Post Cold War Period, the Challenges and the Transformation of Hegemony 2 Establishment of the United States Security Hegemony 2 The Rising Challenge: The Background of the ESDP 4 Transformation of the U.S. Hegemonic Project in Europe 5 Berlin and Brussels (1996) Foreign and Defense Ministerial Meetings 7 Amsterdam EU Summit (1997) and St.Malo Summit (1998) 9 U.S. Response to the Challenge and Washington Summit (1999) 10 Afterwards 11 3. Conclusion 14 References 16 Abstract This study argues the U.S. prolonged hegemony efforts in Europe after the Cold War. What were the changing conditions with the end of the Cold War, How did this change effect the U.S. involvement within the European Security Architecture, What are the U.S. interests in this involvement and finally What has the U.S. done to maintain its security hegemony, which it established during the Cold War? were some of the leading questions addressed in this study. In order to analyze the continuities of this hegemonic project, first we will see how the U.S justifies its existence in Europe with the changing conditions. Then we will further analyze what the U.S. policymakers have done in order to maintain the hegemony. This process will be classified as the transformation and redefinition of the roles of the institutions but mainly NATO since it was the most effective tool for the transatlantic security efforts of the U.S. The reactions of some of the European Union members will show the reader the conflicting views and how they were negotiated in several meetings, culminating in the last decade. Finally, we will argue that the U.S. ...read more.

Middle

The U.S. put her drawback into the final statement. NATO assets would be available to WEU, which enabled it as a militarily effective organization for the first time, however this distribution should not impair NATO's capacity to act and it should not create two NATOs. 1996 meetings came to life through two initiatives. The first one was NATO's 1994 initiative, which decided that NATO would stand ready to make its collective assets for alliance available. The second initiative came from the U.S. presidency, which was promoting the common foreign and security policy of Europe. The main decisions taken with the Berlin declaration and confirmed with Brussels meeting were as follows: - The identity of European Security and Defense Identity should be built within NATO, which would enable the European Allies to make more coherent and effective contribution to the activities of NATO. - EU would make operations through WEU. In the operations, WEU would be able to utilize NATO's Combined Joint Task Force providing that NATO's capacity would not be impaired. Appropriate planning would also permit militarily coherent and effective forces that would be capable of making operations under political control and strategic direction of WEU.16 - NATO members like Turkey and Norway could participate in WEU-led operations if they want to. Meetings paved the way for the WEU-led operations, created "separable but not separate" ESDI within NATO, allowed ESDI to take the initiative in Combined Joint Task Force and finally permitted all the European members of NATO to take part in the WEU-led operations. There was also an agreement that NATO would remain the main body for common security objectives and consultations. As a summary, NATO's primacy and the role played by The United States were recognized in post-cold war era European security. Another emphasis was to a single multinational command structure in order to have the unity of the command. Obviously, there was no need for two NATOs and anything that has the potential of impairing the capability of NATO was addressed in these meetings. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, U.S. defined soft areas as of the usage of autonomous action, prospective European military capability outside of alliance, lack of resources of the European states for more commitment in capability building, the unfair conditions for non EU NATO members, raising challenge of EU in transatlantic relations and duplication of the efforts. These areas would later on provide the zones of negotiations regarding American role in the new Europe. The negotiations are still continuing. One of the tendencies in the negotiation process is the increasing autonomy in European Security and Defense policies and institutions. NATO's primary role concerning article V missions of collective self-defense provides the legal framework for its existence in Europe. Through defining the 'political role' of NATO for the new security challenges24, the U.S. confirmed its role as a permanent European power of the early 21st century. Efforts for the reunification of Germany in NATO, modernized command structure for the new threat perception such as failing states and terrorism, increased bilateral relations such as Partnership for Peace and Euro-Atlantic partnership initiatives, strategic partnership with Russia and relations with Ukraine and finally NATO's two operations in Europe in the last decade solidified this authentication while serving to the U.S. interests in the long run. The European Security is convoluted with NATO, together with Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Council of Europe. Today's formulation consists of NATO as the primary institution for the collective self-defense of the EU, despite the increasing autonomous nature of ESDP through new institutions such as European Defense Agency (EDA). ESDP will contribute to the trend of further integration of Europe by many aspects. What the U.S. thrive to do now is to establish a more harmonized ESDP that do not conflict with NATO's existence and goals as much as possible. However, at least for the near future, the U.S. existence and its role in the new security architecture have obtained a stable place through negotiations and the developments of the last decade. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level European Union section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level European Union essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent has the European Union been successful in "establishing" a coherent European ...

    Thanks to the principle of mutual recognition of national rules that all the member states must allow the product manufactured in any member state to be sold in the local market, the enterprises expand the EU market instead of just focusing on local market quickly.

  2. Which EU institution is the most powerful

    As the driving force behind policy initiative is the Commission, such an act would deprive the European Union, in many senses, of its modus operandi. Nevertheless, it was pressure from the Parliament that led to the resignation of the Santer commissioners in 1999.

  1. Explain how groupthink and groupshift affect group decision-making with reference to contemporary management research

    team, an illusion of invulnerability, a collective effort to rationalise their decision, an unquestioned belief in the group's inherent morality, a stereotyped view of enemy leaders as too evil to warrant genuine attempts to negotiate, and the emergence of self-appointed mind-guards.

  2. Free essay

    Labour and Conservative parties policies on the EU have become increasingly similar. Discuss. discuss

    Another major difference between the two parties is their opinion on the euro. Traditionally Labour have been cautiously in favour of the Euro, where as the Conservatives from the very beginning have been very much against the Euro and have said under no conservative government will Britain ever join the Euro.

  1. The French Revolution

    Families were forced to do this, since they needed money, while factory owners were happy to employ women and children. First of all, they could be paid very little, and children could be controlled more easily than adults, through beating them.

  2. Why are developing countries unhappy with the global arrangements under the Bretton Woods system?

    decide whether or not the country is eligible for financial assistance (Elliot, 2003:123). The first stage in this process is known as the 'decision point' and involves a wide scale analysis of the country in question and aid is only provided if said country adheres to the conditions prescribed by the organisation (Elliot, 2003:123).

  1. What was the original purpose of NATO?

    It was envisioned as a US commitment to help defend Western Europe against the USSR but instead was invoked for the first time when Europe came to the defense of the USA after the 9/11. The first actual of force by NATO was in Bosnia in 1994, in support of the UN mission there.

  2. To what extent can China be classed as a superpower?

    and normalize relations with the USA in order to prevent it being treated as an enemy to prevent a new Cold War, and anti-Chinese alliances. However there are some problems that prevent China from being superpower nowadays. One of them is lack of human rights in the country.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work