• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Why did caudillismo triumph over liberalism in the politics of Latin America before 1880?

Extracts from this document...


Why did caudillismo triumph over liberalism in the politics of Latin America before 1880? Although by the end of the nineteenth century's second decade Latin America had succeeded in ridding itself of the colonial rule which had dictated its every move for three hundred years, liberalism, which was poised to step into the political vacuum left in the wake of the Spanish and Portuguese monarchies, found it impossible to find its feet. Latin America at this stage was still very much a product of its own history, run by conquistadores turned encomenderos turned aristocrats, ruling, paternally or despotically, as they pleased, their rural haciendas and mineral rich fiefdoms as God-sent overlords of their essentially non-white labour forces. An aspiration to political stability - which it was assumed would then, naturally, bring economic stability - made liberalism look like the political apparatus best suited to perform the regulatory role of these new independant states. But almost as soon as the tenets of liberalism were being affirmed, inherant contradictions were coming to light. The zeal with which they had fought the Wars of Independence was fuelled by a strong desire, amongst the creoles, to assume the role of a legitimate ruling class so long denied them by their European governors and to access the international trade those same governors had blocked. ...read more.


But if, as Bethell suggests "the union of military power and personal authority was inherent in the caudillo," could not any man, seasoned by war and well versed in the truism that where there's blood-shed there are spoils, assume the authority of a caudillo? The answer is yes. A new political system was born and with it a new class structure and, in an anthropological sense, a new triblalism. The retention of his seat (or, more accurately, his saddle) of power was dependent on the caudillo's acumen for identifying and nurturing its potential usurpers and favouring them with 'calculated gift-giving' in return for loyalty. That these cronies are just a step away from the pyramid's apex with an intimate knowledge of what the caudillo's job demands gave rise to regular power stuggles within a patron-client set. With the right qualifications, the lowliest mestizo could elevate himself to the top spot. As Williamson puts it: "Based as it was on personal charisma and military skill, caudillismo... represented a way up for ambitious men of mixed blood." And if the enemy did not come from within, it was likely that he would be from the nearest hacienda. ...read more.


The caudillo was, it can be said, the product of Latin American society and history; political affiliations were incidental. Caudillismo's triumph over liberalism was because the caudillo was the embodiment of the Latin American victor over colonial rule, he was a natural leader in a directionless nation used to authority, he offered a semblance of stability amidst a pervading atmosphere of anarchy and the promise of bread on the table in a time of economic strife, whilst liberalism represented a European replacement for the ousted European monarchy, a social revolution after years of war, a faceless, impersonal governance and a draining of rual resources into a distant and alien urban centre. Liberalism's eventual triumph over caudillismo was due to the latter's inability to see, beyond the bounds of his hacienda, a developing world in which the potential of trade and co-operation was being regarded as the natural ally of prosperity whilst protectionism and in-fighting were the agents of poverty. The consequent advancement of democratic ideals and what Katra describes as "history's relentless progress," rendered obsolete the role of these provincial overlords and saw liberalism's position cemented in the prevailing climate of increased urbanisation, the development of national infrastructure and further reliance on international trade. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Political Philosophy section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Political Philosophy essays

  1. The Productivity of Colonial Power

    There is something strange and yet familiar about the colonial stereotype: familiar because it has been partially assimilated into the dominant ideology and indeed helped to define it; strange because the dominant ideology needs to emphasise its very distance and strangeness.

  2. Assess the view that liberalism has triumphed as the dominant ideology in contemporary British ...

    Liberalism, on this view is the only humane response to the inevitable pluralism and diversity of modern societies. Some liberal critics would argue that liberalism has not triumphed of anything rather had evolved itself. It could be argued that liberalism began to emerge as the ideological justification for the rise

  1. Is the Liberal perspective on world politics too idealistic?

    Liberalism in Britain has mainly focused on power of the government, religious,personal and economical freedom. Liberalism has emerged in different forms in different countries. In France liberalism had taken the form and encouraged democracry and secularism. This was evident during the French revolution.

  2. Explain why the Liberals were electorally so successful so often, 1868-85?

    Liberal election victory in 1880 differ distinctly from those of 1868, and it is now necessary to consider these before continuing the overlying analysis. The Tory government had been in power in the preceding six years and had pursued forceful policies both domestically and abroad, that had caused the electorate concern.

  1. Socialist uses of workers' inquiry

    Compare the price of the commodities you manufacture or the services you render with the price of your labor. 76. Quote any cases known to you of workers being driven out as a result of introduction of machinery or other improvements.

  2. Pat Parker & Associates

    these materials are for the use of the campaign during the present campaign cycle only". [1] The issue of the un-mailed postcards is different from the research itself because they were not actually written by Parker & Associates. Parker's research was provided to an outside consultant that used the research data to create the postcards.

  1. America Liberalism

    the Old Testament due to the believe that every word was written by the hand of God. Other religious authorities or staples were not given credibility, particularly the Pope. The Puritans believed that if there is no religious authority, then attempting to impress one central religious belief among all people is wrong, immoral and will perhaps damage your soul.

  2. T difficult for export orientated economics to sustain the land owning elites much longer. ...

    political power restricted and weakened the level of liberal democracy in Argentina and Brazil. Before the 1912 Reform Act was introduced in Argentina political participation was restricted to the land owning elites and a few of the middle classes, the rest of society were excluded and very few were politically mobile.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work