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Abnormality Revision Guide

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Introduction

Defining Abnormality You need to know the four main definitions of abnormality: - 1. Statistical Infrequency: Any behaviour seen as statistically rare is considered abnormal. Did You Know? - This is a normal distribution curve which shows how regular something is amongst a lot of people. This specific graph shows a normal distribution curve for IQ, but this also reveals one of the problems with this definition, it doesn't distinguish between desirable or undesirable behaviour, so a high IQ is consider abnormal by the definition of statistical infrequency. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : : What are the Advantages of this definition? : : high in reliability (able to repeat the study and gain same results) - is useful for certain situations, for example mental retardation - : : What are the Disadvantages of this definition? : : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - Not all abnormal behaviours (by this definition) are undesirable, e.g. high IQ - Some behaviours are quite common but they're not desirable, like mild depression. THINK ! - Does this mean mild depression is not abnormal? - Doesn't distinguish between desirable and undesirable behaviours - Culturally Relative (what is abnormal in what culture may be normal for another) - 2. Deviation From Social Norms: If you fail to adhere to the "norms" of society, you are seen as abnormal. Did You Know? - What is considered a crime in one country, may be completely acceptable behaviour in another. THINK ! - How does this cause a problem in defining abnormality? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : : What are the Advantages of this definition? : : Does distinguish between desirable and undesirable behaviour - Takes the rest of society into account and the effects of socially - deviant people on the rest of us. ...read more.

Middle

- the unconscious is the largest part of the mind and has a powerful affect on behaviour; it can't be controlled unless it's brought into the conscious. Assumption about Treatments: Making the unconscious conscious - this is bringing out the traumas into the conscious mind and dealing with them. This is done in many ways, e.g. hypnosis, ink blot tests, psychotherapy, dream analysis, etc. Treatment concerns the past - the focus of psychoanalysis is on the person's childhood and not what's happening now Criticisms of Causes: Very influential - Freud's theory has had a huge influence on our understanding of normal and abnormal behaviour. He was the first to focus on the unconscious and the effects of a person's childhood on their adult life. Too much emphasis on sex - didn't pay attention to social factors in regards to peoples' mental health. Also, most of his patients were sexually repressed female Viennese Jews. Poor research evidence: - Freud only studied a small sample of people and he generalised his findings to all humans which is inaccurate to do so. - Also, the only child he ever studied was by correspondence with his father, yet his whole theory is based on childhood (although he did observe his own children). Criticisms of Treatments: Ignores the present: - May be related to past but ignoring present factors too is dangerous. Only suitable for certain people: - Psychotherapy is only suitable for certain people; YAVIS (young, attractive, verbally skilled, intelligent and successful) - Treatment is highly subjective as there is only one psychologist making the analysis Highly subjective and not falsifiable: - It's impossible to prove Freud wrong because his theory cannot be scientifically tested. - Psychodynamic psychologists have an answer for everything (person is "in denial" if they cannot remember any traumas consciously) - Psychoanalysis: During psychotherapy, the analyst attempts to find out about the individual's unconscious thoughts. ...read more.

Conclusion

L K U L N N N G N Z C O L K F D L W G M A B I L A S K W E I O F A N S I O E J K M Q P S Y C H O D Y N A M I C S M T M Z R W W W X I I E X O D H D H I O U M A N O Z K I U O M G C C I L S T T R J M T O N U C J N U Y D O Z T A B Y E D O P A G B L Y X S S E N L L I L A T N E M Y U L A R U O I V A H E B O X J L E R U M I C C L W H L D T Z O V N I B U G S R U A T R Y W O Q I M H X S I X B A U L C O A V H A S V M S P O V A N T M F I Z C M I D F E O W I S I S O N G A I D L S A D P W R G R X D U A B K U Q P C N E G T Y E N G D O A A W B V M X V F L W G S O S U V Z G K N P C O U U L H N C G D O P I H Y L E F G P Y M W T D F B G Q G P C T ABNORMALITY BEHAVIOURAL BIOLOGICAL COGNITIVE CONDITIONING DIAGNOSIS DISORDERS FAULTYTHINKING GENETICS MEDICAL MENTALILLNESS PHOBIAS PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY UNCONSCIOUS UNRESOLVEDCONFLICTS ...read more.

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