• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Abnormality Revision Guide

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Defining Abnormality You need to know the four main definitions of abnormality: - 1. Statistical Infrequency: Any behaviour seen as statistically rare is considered abnormal. Did You Know? - This is a normal distribution curve which shows how regular something is amongst a lot of people. This specific graph shows a normal distribution curve for IQ, but this also reveals one of the problems with this definition, it doesn't distinguish between desirable or undesirable behaviour, so a high IQ is consider abnormal by the definition of statistical infrequency. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : : What are the Advantages of this definition? : : high in reliability (able to repeat the study and gain same results) - is useful for certain situations, for example mental retardation - : : What are the Disadvantages of this definition? : : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - Not all abnormal behaviours (by this definition) are undesirable, e.g. high IQ - Some behaviours are quite common but they're not desirable, like mild depression. THINK ! - Does this mean mild depression is not abnormal? - Doesn't distinguish between desirable and undesirable behaviours - Culturally Relative (what is abnormal in what culture may be normal for another) - 2. Deviation From Social Norms: If you fail to adhere to the "norms" of society, you are seen as abnormal. Did You Know? - What is considered a crime in one country, may be completely acceptable behaviour in another. THINK ! - How does this cause a problem in defining abnormality? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : : What are the Advantages of this definition? : : Does distinguish between desirable and undesirable behaviour - Takes the rest of society into account and the effects of socially - deviant people on the rest of us. ...read more.

Middle

- the unconscious is the largest part of the mind and has a powerful affect on behaviour; it can't be controlled unless it's brought into the conscious. Assumption about Treatments: Making the unconscious conscious - this is bringing out the traumas into the conscious mind and dealing with them. This is done in many ways, e.g. hypnosis, ink blot tests, psychotherapy, dream analysis, etc. Treatment concerns the past - the focus of psychoanalysis is on the person's childhood and not what's happening now Criticisms of Causes: Very influential - Freud's theory has had a huge influence on our understanding of normal and abnormal behaviour. He was the first to focus on the unconscious and the effects of a person's childhood on their adult life. Too much emphasis on sex - didn't pay attention to social factors in regards to peoples' mental health. Also, most of his patients were sexually repressed female Viennese Jews. Poor research evidence: - Freud only studied a small sample of people and he generalised his findings to all humans which is inaccurate to do so. - Also, the only child he ever studied was by correspondence with his father, yet his whole theory is based on childhood (although he did observe his own children). Criticisms of Treatments: Ignores the present: - May be related to past but ignoring present factors too is dangerous. Only suitable for certain people: - Psychotherapy is only suitable for certain people; YAVIS (young, attractive, verbally skilled, intelligent and successful) - Treatment is highly subjective as there is only one psychologist making the analysis Highly subjective and not falsifiable: - It's impossible to prove Freud wrong because his theory cannot be scientifically tested. - Psychodynamic psychologists have an answer for everything (person is "in denial" if they cannot remember any traumas consciously) - Psychoanalysis: During psychotherapy, the analyst attempts to find out about the individual's unconscious thoughts. ...read more.

Conclusion

L K U L N N N G N Z C O L K F D L W G M A B I L A S K W E I O F A N S I O E J K M Q P S Y C H O D Y N A M I C S M T M Z R W W W X I I E X O D H D H I O U M A N O Z K I U O M G C C I L S T T R J M T O N U C J N U Y D O Z T A B Y E D O P A G B L Y X S S E N L L I L A T N E M Y U L A R U O I V A H E B O X J L E R U M I C C L W H L D T Z O V N I B U G S R U A T R Y W O Q I M H X S I X B A U L C O A V H A S V M S P O V A N T M F I Z C M I D F E O W I S I S O N G A I D L S A D P W R G R X D U A B K U Q P C N E G T Y E N G D O A A W B V M X V F L W G S O S U V Z G K N P C O U U L H N C G D O P I H Y L E F G P Y M W T D F B G Q G P C T ABNORMALITY BEHAVIOURAL BIOLOGICAL COGNITIVE CONDITIONING DIAGNOSIS DISORDERS FAULTYTHINKING GENETICS MEDICAL MENTALILLNESS PHOBIAS PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY UNCONSCIOUS UNRESOLVEDCONFLICTS ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast the main approaches - Biological and Behaviourist, biological and cognitive, ...

    4 star(s)

    Another similarity is that they are both reductionist. The psychodynamic approach only focuses on mechanistic factors that affect our behaviour because it reduces complex human behaviour to the mechanics of the mind (the battle of the id, ego and superego)

  2. Consider the Problems Faced by Psychologists in the Definition of Abnormality

    normal distribution curve, although it is most frequently considered to be around the highest and lowest 2.5%. For each characteristic this would have to be defined, which would result in further problems defining what numerical value is a suitable point- as a large range could be argued; some psychologists might

  1. Defining abnormality

    Mental disorders which do not have a clear organic cause are often referred to as functional disorders, although they are still thought to be physical in origin, because symptoms occur as a consequence of chemical changes in the brain. Why these changes take place is not perfectly clear, but it

  2. "Outline and evaluate two definitions of abnormality: statistical infrequency and deviation from social norms."

    some do chose a non-conformist lifestyle, others just may be socially deviant because their behaviour is fuelled by high principles.

  1. EVALUATE THE MEDICAL MODEL AND THE BEHAVIOURAL MODEL OF ABNORMALITY

    Another neurotransmitter is ?dopamine?, which is produced in the substantia nigra, a small region in the brain stem just above the spinal cord. It is one of the centres that help control movements. Damage to the substantia nigra has been linked to the onset of Parkinson?s disease as cells within

  2. The contents of this essay will explain different psychological approaches to health and social ...

    Autism has been proven to be genetically inherited. (Stretch et al, 2010) (M2) Psychology is a broad discipline and consequently has seen a continuing escalation in the number of fields of study developing within it. The psychodynamic, cognitive and humanistic existential perspectives are limited examples of differing core methods of approach and emphasis when applied to fundamental psychological issues.

  1. Level 2 Counselling skills. Theories -CBT, Psychodynamic and Person Centred.

    and what you do (Behaviour). These changes can help you to feel better. Unlike some of the other talking treatments, it focuses on the 'here and now' problems and difficulties. Instead of focusing on the causes of your distress or symptoms in the past, it looks for ways to improve your state of mind now.

  2. Discuss issues of bias in diagnostic systems

    In particular, it is important to note that the terms ?depression? and ?schizophrenia? are essentially labels given to a set of behaviours, emotions, or thoughts. It is somehow more attractive for many of us to imagine that an underlying condition called depression is the cause of a person?s severe unhappiness, but there is no underlying condition tested for.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work