• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Alternatives to the multi store model of memory.

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐The working memory model The working memory model is the term used to refer to the part of memory used when working on a complex task which requires you to store information as you go along for e.g. when calculating a complex sum. Memory is active rather than passive and exists in the short term memory. Here are four main components to the WM, these are the central executive (CE) the phonological loop (PL),the visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP) and the episodic buffer (EB). The central executive: the CE directs all attention to particular tasks an therefore drives the whole system. It is seen as the boss of the working memory and it drives the two slave systems. This also deals with cognitive tasks such as mental arithmetic and problem solving, however it has limited storage capacity. Other things it I responsible for are temptations and habits. The phonological loop: the PL deals with the auditory information such as spoken or written material and preserves the order of information. It is divided into two stores these are the phonological store and the articulatory control process (ACP). The phonological; store is also known as the inner ear, it is often referred to as this as it holds speech based information such as words we hear for 1-2 seconds. ...read more.


Another piece of evidence supporting the WMM is the study done by Shallice and Warrington, they studied KF whose brain was injured in a motor cycle accident. This case study showed that STM works independently to the LTM as he had no problem with long term learning but some aspects of his STM were impaired. His brain damage seemed to be restricted to the phonological loop. This supports WMM as it is in the STM and consists of separate stores. Only his phonological loop was damaged leaving other stores intact. This adds validity as it has more credibility. The WMM also accounts for a number of research findings not explained by the MSM,such as the dual task performance. Also the WMM doesn't over emphasise the role of rehearsal like the MSM. This supports the WMM. Another possible supportive point for WMM is that it offers a better account of STM than the MSM. This is because it moves from describing STM as the unitary store to one with a number of components so provides a more detailed description of the STM. The WM makes sense so could be said to be higher in face validity when considering skills like verbal reasoning,comprehension , reading,problem solving and visual and spatial processing. ...read more.


Another point is that the levels of processing model led to deeper memory research. It showed that encoding was not a simple process. This widened the focus from seeing long term memory as a simple storage unit to seeing it as a complex processing system. This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration can aid memory. This supports the LOP's. Eysenck claimed that the LOP theory describes rather than explains. It was also argued that deep processing leads to better LTM than shallow processing. But they failed to provide a detailed reason as to why deep processing is so effective. This goes against the LOP's. Another contradicting point to the LOP's is that the ideas of depth and elaboration are measure. It could be said that there is no way to measure the depth of processing. This can lead to the argument that it is predicted that deeply processed information will be remembered better but the measure of depth of processing is how well the information is remembered. It could be said that the WMM and the LOP model are better at describing information processing than the MSM. They both try to emphasise on the idea that memory is dynamic rather than static. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays


    The experimenter will be addressing all ethical issues arising from this study, so that it is in line with British Psychological Society (BPS) guidelines. Ethical issues state that the experimenter can conduct the investigation with the BPS criteria met. Evidence of the guidelines being met was based on the judgement

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    of Project: An investigation into memory coding for words with Similar sound and meaning in the Short-term memory. And what effect a distraction can have with the overall result. The aim of the study is to investigate and look at how information is encoded or placed into our memories.

  1. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    There is a significant difference and the alternative hypothesis can be accepted, and the null hypothesis can be rejected. These results support the background theory that mental imagery helps in the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. This also backs up Bower's experiment in which the 'mental imagery' group also

  2. Outline and Evaluate the Multi Store Model of Memory and One Alternative Model

    in the English language, detect the number of times either the letter 'e' or 'g' occurred in the words, class the words by part of speech (whether it was a noun, adjective, verb etc.), or decide whether the words would fit into a given sentence frame.

  1. Investigate the effects of Imagery on Memory recall: Visual Aid & Memory Recall

    The dependent variable (what is being measured) was the recall from each participant. The confounding variables, variables apart from the independent variables that do affect the dependent variables were noise, surroundings, age, participant reactivity, use of words and images. Though, noise and surroundings may be considered as an extraneous variable.

  2. Levels Of Processing

    Laboratory experiments do not have very high ecological validity (as field experiments or observations do), the results will have higher validity. If for example I was to conduct a field experiment, noise levels might disrupt the participants from remembering some things faster and true results won't be reflected in their

  1. Investigating the effects of organisation on learning

    without further prompting. Participant A05 similarly commented that she knew how many words of each category she had forgotten. Other participants in Condition A also commented that they counted how many words they had forgotten. This shows that, even without categories being explicitly demonstrated, participants in Condition A had the

  2. How levels of processing affects memory

    Method Design For this experiment a laboratory experiment was chosen. This is a type of experiment that is conducted in a well-controlled environment. All the participants took part in the experiment in the same room, which was a biology classroom.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work