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An experiment to support the assumption that there are two distinct memory stores in the multi store model of memory as propos

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Introduction

An experiment to support the assumption that there are two distinct memory stores in the multi store model of memory as proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). Candidate's Name: Samantha Aloysius Candidate's Number: Instructor's Name: Sarah Carter School: United World College of South East Asia Subject: Psychology, Standard Level Date of Submission: 23.03.07 Word Count: 1422 Abstract This experiment was conducted in order to gather evidence to support the assumption made by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) that there are two distinct memory stores in the multi store model. Two groups of students from an international school in Singapore took part in this experiment. The aim was to see how well participants were able to recall the words in a list and if the position of the words affected their ability to recall the words. The obtained results show that most participants tend to recall the first and last words in the list better than the words in the middle of the list and this is similar to the results obtained from Glanzer and Cunitz (1968) in the free recall experiment that they conducted. Contents Abstract...................................................................i Contents..................................................................1 Introduction...............................................................2 Method....................................................................3 Design............................................................3 Participants......................................................3 Apparatus.........................................................3 Procedure..........................................................4 Results.....................................................................4 Discussion..................................................................6 References..................................................................7 Appendices.................................................................8 Appendix i.........................................................8 Appendix ii........................................................8 Appendix iii.......................................................9 Appendix iv.......................................................10 Appendix v........................................................11 Appendix vi.......................................................12 Appendix vii......................................................12 Introduction Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) ...read more.

Middle

This was done by putting the words in the middle portion at the beginning and ends of the list, and vice versa. By doing this, we were able to find out if the way the two groups recall the list was similar to the serial position curve regardless of the way the words were positioned. If both the graphs of the groups show similar patterns to the serial position curve, then that would prove that the primary and recency effect is reliable. Ethical guidelines that have been taken into account: * All participants were informed before commencing the experimental study that they could withdraw at any time. * Participants were informed of the aims and objectives of the research. * Participants were debriefed at the end of the experiment. * Anonymity for each participant was guaranteed and all data collected was kept confidential. Participants Two groups of participants were used and chosen using opportunity sampling because it was more convenient as there were many students in the school. 30 students from an international school in Singapore with ages ranging from 16-17 years of age took part in the experiment. Apparatus * Consent form. (Included in appendix i) * 2 lists of words. (Included in appendix ii & iii) * Debriefing letter. (Included in appendix vi) ...read more.

Conclusion

The limitations to this experiment was that there may have been demand characteristics, however counterbalancing was used to control for order effects as explained earlier on. The results may tend to be biased because some of the participants that took part in the experiment have done similar experiments before, therefore they may already know what to expect even though the list of words are different and the aim and objectives differ. Changes that could be made in the future when carrying out this experiment could be ensuring that the participants have not done any experiment similar to this so as to ensure more validity of results. Also, the list of words could be lengthened to see how well people can recall the words, and this might make the graph more distinct in peaks and dips because of the number of words used. Repeats could also be done so as to increase the reliability of the results. Conclusion In this experiment, the obtained results tend to show that participants do recall the first and last words better than the words in the middle portion, so this supports the primacy and recency effect shown in the serial position curve obtained by Glanzer and Cunitz (1968) which thus supports the assumption that there are two distinct memory stores in the multi store model of memory as proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). ...read more.

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