• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An investigation into the processing systems of working memory.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An investigation into the processing systems of working memory The working memory model (WMM) was put forward by Baddeley and Hitch, 1974, to overcome some of the shortcomings of the multi store model of memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968). A main criticism of the MSM is that it oversimplifies memory, and particularly views memory as a passive process. Evidence from amnesiac patients suggests that there are more than one type of short term and long-term memory store. For example the case study of KF who suffered brain damage as a result from a motorcycle accident. He had no problem with his long-term memory but his short-term memory was damaged. He could only remember two digits on a digit span test where on average people normally remember around seven. His forgetting of visual stimuli was not as bad as his forgetting of auditory letters and digits. This suggests that there are different stores for verbal material and acoustic material. Another case study that supports the WMM is Clive Wearing his short term and his long-term memory were damaged. ...read more.

Middle

"The tree flew up into the birds"). When the participants were prevented from using the articulatory loop by saying something meaningless repeatedly, their ability to decide whether sentences were meaningful was reduced because they could not re-examine the sentences repeatedly. This suggests there are two separate components involved in reading, the articulatory loop and the primary acoustic store. Den Heyer and Barret (1971) gave their participants a grid in which letters were placed in some cells. This was displayed for ten seconds. Then one group was given a verbal task (resisting a poem) and the other group a special task to complete. They were then asked to recall the original grid. Recall of the letters was more disrupted by the verbal task where as recall of the positions was disrupted by the special task. This is evidence that the letters are stored acoustically and the positions are stored visually. The study can also explain the problems experienced by KF. Because KF's short term forgetting of auditory letters and digits was much greater than his forgetting of visual stimuli, this suggests that his articulatory loop was damaged but because he could still remember visual stimuli it would mean that his Visuo-spatial scratch pad was not damaged. ...read more.

Conclusion

It has limited capacity, but this capacity has not been measured accurately. The central executive does not rely on any manner of receiving information such as sound or vision it is used in many different processing operations but no one knows the precise details of its functioning. It is over simplistic to have a single central executive. Also the Visuo-spatial store has not been explored in as much depth as other slave systems. The aim of the current investigation is to replicate Den Heyer and Barratt, 1971, experiment and investigate whether there are separate stores for verbal/phonological information, and for visual-spatial information. It is suggested that if doing a visual task interferes with one's memory of visual-spatial information, but not phonological information, and vice versa, then this provides evidence for there being at least two separate STM stores. Research Hypothesis: I would predict that doing a visual task while processing spatial information would interfere with the participant's results. This is because the Visuo-spatial sketch pad is being used for two different activities therefore its attention is limited for two instead of just one. Null Hypothesis: I will predict that if my research hypothesis is wrong then the participants' results will not be affected when doing a visual task. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    They were then escorted out of the classroom. All the materials were collected. The recall sheet for the two groups was put into piles, because they will be analysed differently before been compared. 2 days after the recall result was analysed, compared, and a conclusion was obtained, a debriefing sheet was given to each participants that participated.

  2. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    The phonological loop is a tempory memory for words. The aim of my research has been achieved. However, it proves that memory cannot be as simple as the Atkinson and Shiffrin model suggests. There are limitations to this experiment however, the number of people used was only 20 participants, the results of this experiment may not be the case

  1. Levels Of Processing

    I then took each participant individually to a quiet room nearby where they could concentrate on the task, then I briefed them, answered any questions they had and gave them the word list with instruction on the first page. The task involved giving participant a list of questions with related words next to them.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    The target population were all sixth form students from Brinsworth Comprehensive School, Rotherham, South Yorkshire. MATERIALS Materials are essential for this investigation to occur. A list of 10 words was needed. The experimenter for each group would read them out.

  1. Investigation into acoustic and visual encoding in short-term memory

    In conclusion, Baddeley stated that long-term memory makes use of semantic rather than acoustic coding. One other study that looked into the notion of acoustic confusion was carried out by Conrad (1964). The aim of the investigation was to find out whether people would use acoustic coding in STM even when information is presented visually to them.

  2. What experimental evidence is there for the existence of multiple memory systems?

    Haber (1983) claimed it was irrelevant to normal perception, as he assumed that the icon was created at the offset of a visual stimulus, but it is actually created at its onset.3 Therefore, even with a continuously changing visual world, iconic information is still useful.

  1. How Valid is the Modal Model of Memory?

    Milner et al (1978) studied a patient which he referred to as "HM" who had a defective LTM although his STM appeared normal. Another amnesic patient - Clive Wearing, was almost completely incapable of transferring information from the STM to the LTM.

  2. How Minority views afects Majority - Conformity

    People just assume and believe that the other participants know more. The second is normative influences, This is where the participant confirms and may change his original opinion only to be accepted as part of the group, and they don't want to be the odd person.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work