• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Anti-Anxiety and Anti-Depressant drugs used in the clinical practice.

Extracts from this document...


Anti-Anxiety and Anti-Depressant drugs used in the clinical practice. Shaun Taylor 26.02.2003 Anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are conditions in which anxiety dominates clinical symptoms. Anxiety disorders can be classified according to whether anxiety is persistent (general anxiety) or episodic. Episodic conditions are classified further according to whether the episodes are regularly triggered by the same cue (this is then termed a Phobia) or not (this is termed a Panic disorder). Some diagnoses of anxiety disorders include: Psychiatric disorders Physical disorders Depressive illness Hyperthyroidism Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Hypoglycaemia Alcohol dependence Drug dependence Benzodiazepine withdrawal Physical and Psychological symptoms of these anxieties include: Physical symptoms: Gastro Intestinal: Dry mouth, Difficulty in swallowing (Dysphagia), Epigastric discomfort, Excessive swallowing of air (Aerophagy), Diarrhoea. Respiratory: Feeling of chest constriction and tightness, Difficulty in inhaling/breathing (Dyspnoea), Over breathing (Hyper-Ventilation). Cardio-Vascular: Palpitations (sensation of feeling the heart beat/sink), Feeling of pain over the heart, Awareness of missed beats from the heart. Genito-Urinary: Increased frequency in urination (micturation), Impotence, Lack of Libido. Nervous System: Fatigue (tiredness), Blurred vision, Dizziness/vertigo, Headache, Sleep disturbance (insomnia). ...read more.


Dependence, Increase in aggression, Muscle weakness, Headache, Vertigo, Hypotension (low Blood Pressure), Salivation Changes, Gastro Intestinal disturbances, Visual disturbances, Dysarthria (difficulty in articulation), Tremor, Changes in Libido, Incontinence, Urinary retention, Blood disorders, Jaundice. Buspirane Hydrochloride, also part of the Anxiolytics group is thought to act on specific Serotonin receptors; response to treatment takes up to two weeks and should not be used in conjunction with any Benzodiazepines. Side effects of Buspirane Hydrochloride include: Nausea, Dizziness, Headache, Nervousness, Light-headedness, Excitement, Drowsiness, Confusion, Dry mouth, Fatigue. Rare side effects include: Tachycardia (fast heart rate), Palpitations, Chest pain. Beta-Blockers (?-Blockers): ?-Blockers do not affect psychological symptoms such as, worry, tension and fear but however, may reduce physical/autonomic symptoms such as palpitations and tremor. ?-Blockers are therefore indicated for patients with predominantly somatic symptoms which in turn may prevent the onset of worry and fear. ?-Blockers are usually used in cased or Hypertension (high Blood Pressure). ?-Blockers include: Propranolol Hydrochloride, Acebutolol, Atenolol, Betaxolol Hydrochloride, Bisprolol Fumarate, Carvedilol, Celiprolol Hydrochloride, Esmolol Hydrochloride, Labetalol Hydrochloride, Metoprolol Tartrate, Napolol, Nebivolol, Oxprenolol Hydrochloride, Pindolol, Soltalol Hydrochloride, Timolol Maleate. ...read more.


Maprotiline hydrochloride Mianserin hydrochloride Trazodone hydrochloride Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI's): MAOI's are used much less frequently then Tricyclic or SSRI's because of dangers of dietary and drug interactions, patients with phobias and hypochondriacal or hysteria features are said to respond best to MAOI's, response to treatment may be delayed for up to 3 weeks or more and may take an additional 1-2 weeks to perform at their maximum level. Withdrawal from MAOI's should be done gradually if at all possible and other anti-depressants should not be started for a further 2 weeks after treatment with MAOI's. MAOI's include: Phenelzine, Tranylcypromine, Isocarboxazid, Moclobemide. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI's): SSRI's inhibit the re-uptake of serotonin, they should be used with caution in patients with epilepsy and ECT treatment. SSRI's are less sedating and have fewer antimuscarinic and cardiotoxic effects than Tricyclic antidepressants. SSRI's include: Citalopram (Cipramil), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoamine Maleate, Paroxetine (Seroxat), Sertraline (Lustral). Side effects to Antidepressant drugs are vast and contain: Dry mouth, Sedation, Blurred vision, Constipation, Nausea, Difficulty in micturation, Cardio-vascular side effects, Sweating, Tremor, Rashes, Hypersensitivity reactions, Urticaria (nettle rash), Photosensitivity, Behavioural disturbances, Mania, Confusion, Interference with sexual function, Blood sugar changes, Increased appetite and weight gain, Testicular enlargement, Gynaecomastia (male development of breast tissue), Convulsions (seizures), Blood disorders, Abnormal liver function. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. Arousal and Anxiety

    When saying that task is easier, what it really means is that there is a great margin for a successful execution, although staying within the boundaries. Obviously, a task becomes easier for a player the more times the player practises.

  2. Anxiety Disorders

    occurring against the persisting background of a sense of "numbness" and emotional blunting, detachment from other people, unresponsiveness to surroundings, anhedonia, and avoidance of activities and situations reminiscent of the trauma. There is usually a state of autonomic hyperarousal with hypervigilance, an enhanced startle reaction, and insomnia.

  1. Explanations of anorexia nervosa

    However, as Frudepoints out, what is ultimately being reinforced, either through the behaviour of others, or by the anorexic his or herself, is not dieting per se, but a prohibition on eating. Frudesuggests that as anorexia is about restricting one's food intake, and as it is fairly easy towork out

  2. Psychological influences in childbearing and midwifery practice - A Rite of Passage: Transition from ...

    In 1990, Nicolson identified that despite the development of preventative programmes, most treatment initiatives are reactive. Various studies are now focusing on the pro-active approach to dealing with mental illness during pregnancy and the postnatal period. Ross et al (2004)

  1. Anxiety and Pain

    with threat of immanent attack. The models consider PD as quantitatively not qualitatively different from normal panic episodes (as opposed to the more medical models which view it as more of a qualitative difference, see Baker, 1989)

  2. M.E (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome)

    Many people with M.E. do however report that increased stress seems common around the time they first get ill, or when another trigger like an infection occurs. Factors that maintain the illness are: * Doing too much or being too active or lurching between over and under activity, which is otherwise known as 'boom and bust'.

  1. Sleep disorder - 'Insomnia'.

    However, it will soon return back to normal. 2 Acute insomnia: Acute insomnia is slightly more serious because it continues for about 2-3 weeks. Contributing factors include a job change, divorce, serious illness, financial problems, or the death of a close friend/relative.

  2. Does a Music Therapy Intervention Reduce Anxiety in Patients either before or after invasive ...

    Therefore I felt it important to research the effects of music on anxiety. The title of a study is an important factor, Parahoo (1997) suggests that a title should draw the reader's attention to the precise area of study and make reference to the population from whom the data is collected.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work