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Anti-Anxiety and Anti-Depressant drugs used in the clinical practice.

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Introduction

Anti-Anxiety and Anti-Depressant drugs used in the clinical practice. Shaun Taylor 26.02.2003 Anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are conditions in which anxiety dominates clinical symptoms. Anxiety disorders can be classified according to whether anxiety is persistent (general anxiety) or episodic. Episodic conditions are classified further according to whether the episodes are regularly triggered by the same cue (this is then termed a Phobia) or not (this is termed a Panic disorder). Some diagnoses of anxiety disorders include: Psychiatric disorders Physical disorders Depressive illness Hyperthyroidism Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Hypoglycaemia Alcohol dependence Drug dependence Benzodiazepine withdrawal Physical and Psychological symptoms of these anxieties include: Physical symptoms: Gastro Intestinal: Dry mouth, Difficulty in swallowing (Dysphagia), Epigastric discomfort, Excessive swallowing of air (Aerophagy), Diarrhoea. Respiratory: Feeling of chest constriction and tightness, Difficulty in inhaling/breathing (Dyspnoea), Over breathing (Hyper-Ventilation). Cardio-Vascular: Palpitations (sensation of feeling the heart beat/sink), Feeling of pain over the heart, Awareness of missed beats from the heart. Genito-Urinary: Increased frequency in urination (micturation), Impotence, Lack of Libido. Nervous System: Fatigue (tiredness), Blurred vision, Dizziness/vertigo, Headache, Sleep disturbance (insomnia). ...read more.

Middle

Dependence, Increase in aggression, Muscle weakness, Headache, Vertigo, Hypotension (low Blood Pressure), Salivation Changes, Gastro Intestinal disturbances, Visual disturbances, Dysarthria (difficulty in articulation), Tremor, Changes in Libido, Incontinence, Urinary retention, Blood disorders, Jaundice. Buspirane Hydrochloride, also part of the Anxiolytics group is thought to act on specific Serotonin receptors; response to treatment takes up to two weeks and should not be used in conjunction with any Benzodiazepines. Side effects of Buspirane Hydrochloride include: Nausea, Dizziness, Headache, Nervousness, Light-headedness, Excitement, Drowsiness, Confusion, Dry mouth, Fatigue. Rare side effects include: Tachycardia (fast heart rate), Palpitations, Chest pain. Beta-Blockers (?-Blockers): ?-Blockers do not affect psychological symptoms such as, worry, tension and fear but however, may reduce physical/autonomic symptoms such as palpitations and tremor. ?-Blockers are therefore indicated for patients with predominantly somatic symptoms which in turn may prevent the onset of worry and fear. ?-Blockers are usually used in cased or Hypertension (high Blood Pressure). ?-Blockers include: Propranolol Hydrochloride, Acebutolol, Atenolol, Betaxolol Hydrochloride, Bisprolol Fumarate, Carvedilol, Celiprolol Hydrochloride, Esmolol Hydrochloride, Labetalol Hydrochloride, Metoprolol Tartrate, Napolol, Nebivolol, Oxprenolol Hydrochloride, Pindolol, Soltalol Hydrochloride, Timolol Maleate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Maprotiline hydrochloride Mianserin hydrochloride Trazodone hydrochloride Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI's): MAOI's are used much less frequently then Tricyclic or SSRI's because of dangers of dietary and drug interactions, patients with phobias and hypochondriacal or hysteria features are said to respond best to MAOI's, response to treatment may be delayed for up to 3 weeks or more and may take an additional 1-2 weeks to perform at their maximum level. Withdrawal from MAOI's should be done gradually if at all possible and other anti-depressants should not be started for a further 2 weeks after treatment with MAOI's. MAOI's include: Phenelzine, Tranylcypromine, Isocarboxazid, Moclobemide. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI's): SSRI's inhibit the re-uptake of serotonin, they should be used with caution in patients with epilepsy and ECT treatment. SSRI's are less sedating and have fewer antimuscarinic and cardiotoxic effects than Tricyclic antidepressants. SSRI's include: Citalopram (Cipramil), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Fluvoamine Maleate, Paroxetine (Seroxat), Sertraline (Lustral). Side effects to Antidepressant drugs are vast and contain: Dry mouth, Sedation, Blurred vision, Constipation, Nausea, Difficulty in micturation, Cardio-vascular side effects, Sweating, Tremor, Rashes, Hypersensitivity reactions, Urticaria (nettle rash), Photosensitivity, Behavioural disturbances, Mania, Confusion, Interference with sexual function, Blood sugar changes, Increased appetite and weight gain, Testicular enlargement, Gynaecomastia (male development of breast tissue), Convulsions (seizures), Blood disorders, Abnormal liver function. ...read more.

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