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Approaches to psychology - Behaviourist and cognitive approaches.

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Introduction

Approaches to psychology Behaviourist and cognitive approaches BIOLOGISTS AND PSYCHOLOGISTS have approached the study of animal behaviour from different perspectives. These differences can be attributed in part to differences in the nature of the questions they ask. The goal of biologists--typically, zoologists and behavioural ecologists--is to understand how animal behaviour contributes to survival and reproductive success. The behaviours of primary interest have been those that are genetically predisposed or those that are typical of the species. One would expect the behaviour of different species to have varied as they evolved in different environments and under different evolutionary pressures. ...read more.

Middle

But animals have also evolved to adjust their behaviour to environmental variability by reacting to behavioural consequences, and it is this behavioural plasticity that is of primary interest to psychologists. The focus of psychologists on behavioural plasticity can be traced to the remarkable flexibility of human behaviour and the attempt to model that behaviour in other organisms. However, psychologists differ among themselves in how best to model flexible behaviour. Psychoanalytic approach Humanistic approach Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person. ...read more.

Conclusion

They emphasize characteristics that are shared by all human beings such as love, grief, caring, and self-worth. Humanistic psychologists study how people are influenced by their self-perceptions and the personal meanings attached to their experiences. Humanistic psychologists are not primarily concerned with instinctual drives, responses to external stimuli, or past experiences. Rather, they consider conscious choices, responses to internal needs, and current circumstances to be important in shaping human behaviour. Summary: Humanistic psychologists believe that: * An individual's behaviour is primarily determined by his perception of the world around him. * Individuals are not solely the product of their environment. * Individuals are internally directed and motivated to fulfil their human potential. ...read more.

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