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Behaviourist and Psychodynamic approach

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Behaviourist and Psychodynamic approach Behaviourism originated with the work of J.B Watson, an American psychologist. Watson claimed that psychology was not concerned with the mind or with human consciousness instead, psychology would be concerned only with behaviour. In this way, men could be studied objectively, like rats and apes. Watson's work was based on the experiments of Ivan Pavlov, who had studied animal's responses to conditioning. In Pavlov's experiment, he rang a bell as he fed some dogs several meals. Each time the dogs heard the bell they knew that a meal was coming, and they would begin to salivate. He then rang the bell without bringing food, but the dogs still salivated. They had been "conditioned" to salivate at the sound of a bell. For example when he rang the bell (unconditioned stimuli) if this occurs at same time there's another action taking place (food bowl) this can lead to a conditioned response. You have to keep reinforcing this behaviour for the person to be conditioned to this behaviour. Behaviourism is manipulative. It seeks merely to understand human behaviour, but to predict and control it. From his theories, skinner developed the idea of "shaping" by controlling rewards and punishments; you can shape the behaviour of another person. Behaviour is explained in terms of biological and environmental factors that influence the behaviour of individuals. ...read more.


When a child is hungry, the id wants food, and therefore the child cries. When the child is uncomfortable, in pain, too hot, too cold, or just wants attention. The id speaks up until his or her needs are met. The id doesn't care about reality, about the needs of anyone else, only its own satisfaction. Within the next three years, as the child interacts more and more with the world, the second part of the personality begins to develop. Freud called this part the ego. The ego is based on the reality principle. The ego understands that other people have need and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. It's the egos job to meet the needs of the id. By the end of five, or the end of the phallic stage of development, the super ego develops. The super ego is part of the psyche that tries to impose moral constraints on the id, represents our conscience, our moral development from the demands of family and society. Behaviourism only cares about behaviour of the subject and doesn't care about mental processes (the mind is considered and impenetrable black box) the psychodynamic approach looks at things happening in the mind only (usually unconscious elements therein) ...read more.


Behaviourists believe that our actions are determined by life experiences rather than unconscious forces, so the desire for adventure holidays is developed through the media, and also through our parent's influences. For example, as a child you watch your dad everyday on motor bikes your more likely to want to ride motor bikes. There are four component processes influenced by the observers behaviour during exposure to stunts, these include attention; retention; motor reproduction; and motivation. Attention is the first component of observational learning. Individuals cannot learn much by observation unless they perceive and attend to the significant features of the behaviour. For example, you must attend to what the stunt man/woman is doing and saying in order to reproduce that stunt. Retention is the next component. In order to reproduce that behaviour, the individual must code the information into long term memory. Therefore, the information will be retrieval. Motor reproduction is another process in observational learning. The observer must be able to reproduce the models behaviour. The observer must learn and process the physical capabilities of the modelled behaviour. An example of motor reproduction would be able to learn how to ride a bike. The final process is motivation or reinforcements. In this process the observer expects to receive positive reinforcements for the modelled behaviour, e.g the stunt man being rewarded. Therefore, you may perform the same act to achieve the rewards, for example, you witness these stunts being rewarded by the media. ...read more.

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