• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Behaviourist Perspective

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Behaviourist Perspective The third psychological perspective we have studied is behaviourist. There are three psychologists that behaviourist perspective and they had different theories. E.G., Pavlov, his own theory on the behaviourist theory and but Thondike and Skinner are similar because Thorndike started the theory and Skinner developed it. They all studied the same perspective, so the theory for the behaviourist can be associated, reinforcement of learning. For example an infant can be seen as a learning machine, E.G., crying can be reinforced by being picked up. Operant learning or conditioning was started by Thorndike. Thorndike believed a type of learning also called instrumental conditioning. Thorndike - carried out a first research on cats and puzzle boxes. He suggested animals learn to associate between the stimuli, for example, being put in a box and response. E.G., pulling the string with the reward e.g., to gain food. Later Thorndike's theory was further developed by Skinner. Operant conditioning can be referred to behaviour, which operates on environment, in order to produce the outcome. Skinner used an operant chamber, which he called Skinner box. The box with a small lever, which delivered food when pressed by the animal. The steps were presented like this: - 1. Place the rat in the box. 2. Rat explores interior (food deprivation aids exploration and learning). 3. Rat stumbles across the lever and food follows. 4. Animal learns to press lever, this will continue until it's fulfilled. After these four stages, the concept of trail and error occurs and reinforces behaviour into positive reinforcement, which means 'in rewarded terms'. ...read more.

Middle

Behaviour modification Operant learning from Skinner, which is widely used. The emphasis is on desired behaviour to be rewarding with praise and ignoring the behaviour problem. The termed modification of behaviour is in order to modify behaviour, which is important to: - 1. Define behaviour, which needs reducing E.G., running round the classroom. 2. Identify and define behaviour that we want increasing E.G., sitting still. 3. Identify what is reinforcing the problem behaviour E.G., becoming centre of attention. 4. Try to change it by ignoring or punishing the undesired response and try to reinforce the desired behaviour by praise. Eventually the child should realise is it necessary to sit down. The child may then learn to sit for long periods of time. Consistency is vital to all adults, which must adapt the same approach, which is adapted both at school and at home. The approach is therefore to: - * Make experiments as to what is expected of the child for each period. * Ignore behaviours which interfere with learning, a punishment must be withdrawal of some positive reinforces. * To give praise and attention to behaviours which encourage learning to tell the child why it is being praised. Modelling therapy This is based on social and observational learning. The child is shown examples of desired behaviour and sees others being rewarded for the types of behaviour. People behaving in an unacceptable manner will be shown as being punished. The example can be characters in books, TV/films; role-plays watching peoples behaviour such as children and adults. Evaluation The perspective and the theory on behaviourist, for me was amusing and interesting. ...read more.

Conclusion

The educational can also come from the therapeutic because you are also learning the theories. An educational response could be that you study the books on the Pavlov and Skinner and become fully aware of the two theories and what you have learned from them. The weaknesses can be that the two theories ignored emotions, motivation and drives in people because these cannot be observed. This weakness can only be from Skinners theory because he studied humans. The learning is operant conditioning, Skinner saw people response to whatever to be tested, on, this was only shown by the stimuli but a reaction of the response but no other, E.G., emotions and motivation because these could not be observed. Skinner only saw how humans behave which is followed a reward and learn to repeat it. For example the child puts sweet in its mouth and enjoyed then the child tends to repeat the action. This shows that the emotions, motivation and drives were ignored, because you could not see how the person reacts to the subject. The same that it presents very mechanisms views on humans on just passive receivers of stimuli. I have learned quite a fair bit on behaviourist perspective and its theories. I found it rather difficult to write about but I think it was a result of lack of concentration as well as not spending enough time on the theories of the behaviourist perspective. Overall I think I have a basic knowledge on the theories and determined to study it more to make myself aware on how the theories concepts and points. This would help me in my further assignments and understanding of the subject. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Overall this essay has some relevant points on theory and research that need developing. The other main point is that there is a need for planning before writing to ensure a coherent essay that is succinct and relevant. 3*

Marked by teacher Stephanie Duckworth 10/06/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Bowlby's Attachment Theory

    4 star(s)

    The position taken by behaviourists and Freudians (Gleitman etc 1988????) would be that the monkeys should become attached to the 'mother' that offered food rather than comfort. In fact, the monkeys spent most of their time with the cloth mother, visiting the other one only for food.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast two of the main approaches to personality psychology

    3 star(s)

    The theory argues that personality consists of learned behaviours. They believe that both the consequences of behaviour and a person's beliefs about the consequences (expectancy) determine personality. Social learning theory is a mix of various approaches to psychology and because it's developed out of behaviourism it tends to be highly empirical and dependant on detailed observations.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    For this assignment I am going to describe my own personality and compare it ...

    were weird, but to them they are behaving in the way they have been taught and think are right. People behave in the way they do because of the laws that have been enforced on them by their family, friends and people of a higher authority.

  2. Classical conditioning in human behaviour.

    So when Watson worked with Rayner (1920) and they succeeded in inducing fear in a young child through classical conditioning. The following experiment was considered to be one of the most ethically questionable psychology experiments ever conducted. Key study: The case of little Albert (Watson and Rayner, 1920)

  1. Describe processes for initiating, maintaining, developing and concluding a counselling relation.

    ChildLine- ChildLine is the UK's free, 24-hour helpline for children in distress or danger. Trained volunteer counsellors comfort, advice and protect children and young people who may feel they have nowhere else to turn. Every day 4,500 children call ChildLine, yet only 2,500 manage to talk to someone; this is due to lack of funds.

  2. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    My school that I will be revisiting is Buxton County Primary school. I would like to do my group communication with class 2 because I feel that it is an appropriate task to do with them, although I think that reception class is a bit too young.

  1. How can Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories be applied to the classroom?

    Unlike Piaget Vygotsky believed that the teacher plays a key role in the teaching of a child through interaction and instruction. The teacher needs to be more knowledgeable that the pupil (expert and non-expert roles), the teacher also needs to provide guidance, direction, support and structure.

  2. Original writing - The secret silence.

    It made her sick. So she walked on, empty as usual. The chill bumps had consumed her skin a long time ago, she didn't even notice anymore. She started to shiver as she crossed the bridge. The wind over the river always seemed stronger.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work