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CA - Baron-Cohen et al - 1997

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Introduction

COGNITIVE APPROACH Baron-Cohen et al - 1997 Aim of study: * To provide support for a cognitive explanation of autism especially in autistic adults which lack theory of mind. * To investigate whether females would be better on this test of theory of mind ToM than males. Participants: * GROUP 1 - 16 ppts (13 males/3 females) - 4 autistic/ 12 had Asperger's syndrome. -Normal IQ - mean = 105 -Recruited from a variety of clinical courses, as well an advert. (Sampling method) * GROUP 2 - 50 NORMAL, age-matched adults - (25 males/25 females). -IQ above 85. -All drawn from general population of Cambridge. Sampling method- Random selected from subject panel. * GROUP 3 - 10 patients with Tourette's syndrome. (8 men/2 women) -Age-matched with group 1 + 2. -Mean IQ = 103. -All attending a referral centre in London. (Sampling method) ...read more.

Middle

If valid, then performance of Eyes Task should correlate with Strange Stories Task. (Example of concurrent validity). * 3. Control Tasks - Group 1 given 2 controls to check if difficulties with Eye Task were due to other problems. 1. Gender recognition of Eyes Task - Indentify gender of eyes. Such judgement doesn't involve mindreading, but involves face perception. Therefore, this controls difficulties in that area. 2. Basic Emotion Recognition Task (Emotion Task) - Judging photos of whole faces displaying 6 basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness and surprise. This was to check whether poor performance on Eyes Task could be linked to a problem recognising basic expression rather than lack of ToM. Controls: * Standardised photos - Same size, eye region, and all black and white. * 2 Control tasks - To check if poor performance of Eyes Task in Group 1 was due to other factors. ...read more.

Conclusion

(Some autistics had uni degrees. Evaluation: * Research Method - Quasi exp = Ad. - I.V. occurs naturally. (types of people/ gender in normal group) Dis. - Not "true experiment". - Repeated measures in different order to overcome order effect. * Individual Differences - Autism/ Asperger's Syndrome/ Tourettes/ Normal |___________ Types of people _____________| * Ecological Validity - Low because ppts could only see eyes and irl, most people are used to see the whole face. Just eyes = not very real-like situation. * Sample - All adults - Autistic/ Asperger's -16 ppts (13m/3f) - Mean IQ 105 - Normal - 50 ppts (25/25) - IQ ? 85 - Tourette's - 10 ppts (8m/2f) - Mean IQ 103.5 * Type of Data - Quantitative = Ad. - Easier to analyse. Dis. - Loss of rich data. * Applications - Useful/ helpful for people educating and interacting with Autistic people. Help the Autistic. * One Change - Sample - Same number of ppts in each sample group. - Use variety of people with different cultures and socio background + other countries. ...read more.

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