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Childhood Disorders.

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Introduction

Binita Thapa General Psychology: PSY 101 - 05 T/TH 12:00 - 1:30 pm Childhood Disorders Almost every child experiences some unavoidable stresses of growing up. Some such stresses are sleep disturbances, specific fears of the darkness, dogs, school or particular room or person, most children becomes too timid allowing other children to bully them, children normally displays periods of general negativism, general dissatisfaction, clinging to their mothers sides in another problem. Sibling rivalry is another elementary school problem. However normal problems that intensifies or lasts for long periods may become serious disturbances. Some of the serious childhood problems are: 1. Toilet training disturbances: A difficulty in toilet training or bowel habits. Two most common problems are Enuresis ( lack of bladder control) and encopresis (lack of bowel control. Enuresis is more common than encopresis and more among males than females. ...read more.

Middle

This is caused by lack of intellectual stimulation at home and possible causes are parents who discourage their childs attempts to grow up, childhood stresses, mental retardation and emotional disturbances. Stuttering: chronic tumbling in speech is another major language problem. It is believed that the problem is due to speech timing mechanisms in the brain. Stuttering is 4 times more common in males. Parents play a major role to make stuttering worse. Children who fear that they are about to stutter are more likely to stutter. Parents should support their children, avoid criticizing speech difficulties. Besides the above formal speech therapy can help many children over come stuttering. 4. Learning disorders: include problem with reading, math or writing. Learning disorder may exist when school achievement is much lower than we would expect for a child's age and intelligence. ...read more.

Conclusion

The basic idea is to reward the ADHD child for being calm and paying attention. They are taught how to monitor their own behavior and how to ignore distractions. 6. Autism: One of the most severe childhood problems. It affects 1 in 2,500 children. Boys 4 times more than girls. Such children are locked into their own private worlds and appear to have no need for affection or contact with others. They are extremely isolated, may throw tantrums, sometimes including self-destructive behavior. They do not seem to understand what other people are thinking or even that they do think. Autism is caused by congenital defects in the brain. Symptoms appear before the child is one year old. Even with help only 25 percent of all autistic children approach normalcy and only 2 percent are able to live alone. However, almost all autistic children can make progress with proper care when treatment is begun early. Behavior modification has been particularly successful. Reference: Essentials of Psychology 9th edition Dennis Coon Child Development ...read more.

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