• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cognitive Development

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Cognitive development is a mechanism in where the mind processes new information. An individual can understand any information which corresponds with his or her outlook of the world. When or if this information fails to correspond with this individual's view of the world they will be required to re examine and modify there means of thinking to accommodate this new information. Jean Piaget observed children and their development of making sense of the world and environment around them. He finally developed a four stage model of how and why the mind processes any new information it encounters known as 'Piaget's Stage theory of Cognitive Development'. Piaget suggests that all children develop through 4 stages and they all develop in exactly the same order. These stages are known as the sensorimotor stage, Preoperational stage, Concrete Operations, and Formal Operations. During the Sensorimotor stage which initially occurs from birth to two years it is suggested that the child fabricates an understanding and becomes aware of themselves and how things work also developing a sense of reality. This occurs through interactions with the environment. The infant is able to distinguish the difference between itself and other objects. The learning takes place by assimilation (which is the organization of information and absorbing it into existing schema) and accommodation (which is when an object cannot be assimilated and the schema has to be modified to include the object). ...read more.

Middle

and emotional development (attachment). The study also demonstrates that these effects can be reversed to some extent with high quality care. An attachment can be described as very close emotional bond to another person. Within child development this occurs between infants and the person/people who are involved with them. During the first three months of these babies' lives they are actively sociable with any caregiver but after a few months the infant becomes willing and they begin to respond to people who they are most familiar with. There are factors which are essential for the development of attachment. One of these factors is known socially as sensitive responsiveness which means responding appropriately to the babies' specific needs. For example being able to understand and differentiate between a baby's cry of pain and a cry of hunger. An example of an attachment study is that of Rene Spitz and Katherine Wolf (1946). This was an observational study where babies were being brought up by their biological mothers in prison. These babies where then separated from their mothers as a result of a prison re-building programme at the ages ranging from between six and eight months old which as we know are the crucial stages in where attachments first occur. The babies were separated for the duration of three months and during this time the babies were cared for by other mothers. ...read more.

Conclusion

Gibson's and Walks visual cliff (1960) concluded that babies have an inborn ability to perceive depth enabling this perceptual ability to have been hereditary. On the contrary the role of nurture in the development of perception argues that our abilities are learnt socially. Hubel conducted a study in where newly born kittens had one of their eyelids sewn together so they could not open it as they matured. Some kittens had their right eye sewn and some their left. Hubel discovered that the part of the brain that corresponded to the eye that had been sewn up at birth was extremely underdeveloped and the part of the brain corresponding to the eye not sewn was much more developed. This suggests that the part of the brain corresponding to vision develops from stimulation from the environment and is underdeveloped without stimulation. So to conclude the environment can be seen as an influence towards the development of perceptual ability which supports the nurture side of the debate. This study could be criticized for the fact that Hubel used kittens and it could be argued that the human brain and an animal's brain are different so this theory cannot be applied to humans. One of the main ethical issues within psychology is the protection of participants from physical and also psychological harm; this then limit's a psychologists control over them whilst carrying out these studies ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. counselling stages of attachement

    Deprivation And Privation Deprivation - Deprivation refers to the separation from a caregiver, as a result of which the attachment bond is broken. Privation - Privation refers to the situation where a child has never formed an attachment with anyone.

  2. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    This would be something I need to learn and be trained for. * One of the things that I felt very passionately about was making sure that none of the children would feel left out in anyway. So therefore I make an extra effort to try and include those children

  1. "Psychologists are divided in the extent to which they see day care as beneficial ...

    For instance, in Sweden there is a distinctive parental leave system allows a large amount of a child's first year to be spent with one or both of the parents, thus enabling the formation of a stronger attachment with family members before beginning daycare.

  2. criminal behavior

    In the study an adult was aggressive toward a Bobo doll, the children were then observed to see if they imitated any behaviour shown by the model, or if they were not aggressive. There were also 2 other groups, one of which had seen a non aggressive by physical contact

  1. It has been established that human social development depends in a fundamental way on ...

    Harlow & Zimmerman conducted studies on a group of rhesus monkeys. Their studies consisted of isolating young monkeys for three months, six months or twelve months. The researchers concluded that the behaviour of the monkeys who had been isolated for twelve months was proportionately worse than those who had been isolated for three months.

  2. A2 perceptual thoeries

    Another way of conducting studies on humans is by altering their experiences, by adding experiences above or below those they would normally have to see whether more experiences will affect the development of their perceptual skills. Researchers who performed studies on people using distortion, readjustment and deprivation methods found that

  1. Using studies from the list below, answer the questions which follow: Rosenhan (sane in ...

    big giraffe calling out because he had taken the crumpled giraffe - mother - away). Both Freud and the father believed that the long neck of the giraffe was a symbol for the large adult penis. However Hans rejected this idea.

  2. Intelligence is impossible to define or measure

    A more valuable definition is provided by M. Eysenk (1998, p. 408) who states that "...intelligence involves the capacity to learn from experience and to engage successfully in problem solving and abstract reasoning". It is clear from what has been said above that there is no agreement on a common definition of intelligence.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work