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Cognitive Psychology

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Introduction

Cognitive Psychology This essay will be looking at two theories of Memory and two theories of Forgetting. The Multi-store model and Levels of Processing (LOP), for memory. Trace Decay and Cue-dependency theory for forgetting. The Multi-store model is one of the theories of memory; it is concerned with identifying the different memory stores. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) suggested that there are three types of information stores these are the sensory register, the short -term memory and the long-term memory. The sensory register only holds information for a fraction of a second this information is then passed to the short-term memory which holds a few items for a few seconds. ...read more.

Middle

Deep processing produces more elaborate longer lasting memory traces. Craik and Lackart(1972) said that there were three levels at which information is processed these are Structal Processing, Phonetic Processing and Semantic Processing. There is experimental support by Craik and Tulving(1972) to suggest that Semantic Processed information is bettered remembered that structurally or phonetically processed material. There is also evidence from brain-scanning studies to show that when material is semantic processed there is more brain activity. However other factors also affect how well material is remembered, Reber et al. (1994) showed that emotional content of words affected recall. Cue-dependency is one of the most common reason why we forget things as said by Eysenck(1998). ...read more.

Conclusion

Trace decay is one of the theories of forgetting, it shows that processed memory creates memory traces and shows that memory trace spontaneously fades with time. Rehearsal maintains the memory in STM until a structural change in the brain occurs which is the creation of a new long-term memory; trace decay only happens in the short-term memory. Experiments have shown that recall declines 24 per cent over a 15 second period, trace decay also explains why we forget more as time goes on. Neurological evidence supports the ideas that changes in nerve communication occurs with repeated nerve firing, Hebb (1949). However the theory is difficult to test as interference or displacement could occur anytime between learning and recall. Trace decay does not show why some memories never seem to decay e.g. bike riding. ?? ?? ?? ?? Zoe Thaxter ...read more.

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