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Cognitive Psychology Memory

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Introduction

Nawwal Dada 12A Psychology Assessment for Miss Fletcher Psychology Unit 1 - January 2006 Cognitive Psychology Question two a) Describe the multi store model of memory. The multi-store memory model was the model which was discovered in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffron . The aim of the study was to identify how memories are stored and if they are able to go from short term memory (which has a capacity of 7 plus or minus 2, a maximum duration of 18 seconds and an acoustic encoding) to long term memory (which has an unlimited duration and capacity and a semantic encoding) and vice versa. Their research indicate that there are three memory stores; the sensory store which take in information from the five senses attention, which is so limited i.e. the blink of and eye and transfers it to the short term memory, here the information is rehearsed to be remembered and if that information is rehearsed long enough it will be transferred to the long term memory. ...read more.

Middle

or retroactive learning (something you learnt before which affects what u learn now.) such as, when you open a draw to get a spoon and your mum has changed it to another draw, every time you want a spoon you will go to the original draw, after sometime your mum decides to return the spoons to the original draw and when you get a spoon you will now go to the new draw instead of the original draw. This occurs because your memory of where the spoons are has been altered. d) Outline and evaluate research into eyewitness testimony. Loftus carried out an eyewitness testimony study into the affects that leading question can have on ones memory and predicted that if questions were asked in a certain way they would be able to evoke a certain response. She had five groups of people which were asked to watch 7 different video tapes on car accidents and then complete a questionnaire which contained one leading question about the speed at which the vehicles where travelling at the time they collided, but the word collided was substituted with synonyms such as crashed, contacted, smashed and hit. ...read more.

Conclusion

carried out again on a different group but this time a man emerged caring a pen, the results show that those who where in the incident where a man entered with a bloody knife remembered the incident compared to those in the other group because they where experiencing higher stress levels. But this does not mean that leading questions are affective all the time, this too was studied using the significant vs. insignificant test where a group of participants witnessed a purse being stolen and then had to report the crime. The interviewer would ask the witness if they witnessed the brown purse being stole, but the witness would reassure the interviewer that the purse was red, when the interview said they were wrong and the purse was brown it caused the witness distress and they angrily reassured them it was red, when in fact the purse was red. This is a true indication that sometimes memories are not affected by leading questions. Therefore it would be accurate in saying that leading questions can affect eye witness memory but it does not always alter or change the memory. ...read more.

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