• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Compare and contrast two psychological approaches

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Compare and contrast two psychological approaches The purpose of this assignment is to compare and contrast the following psychological approaches Behaviourism and Psychoanalysis, in doing this we will unpack the key points of these two approaches, highlighting the differences and explaining them. One of the main psychologists in recent history is John B. Watson (1878 - 1958). Watson was responsible for creating Behaviourism by developing on theories discovered by earlier psychologist Pavlov (1849 - 1936). This phenomenon had a profound effect on how psychology developed. The general assumptions of the Behaviourist approach show that it relies on the study of objective and observable behaviours and does not take into consideration any internal thoughts or feelings. Basically, behaviourism is the study of the relationship between a person's environment and their behaviour whilst ignoring the internal thoughts and feelings of the individual. The Psychodynamic approach is a stark contrast. This approach was developed by Freud (1856 - 1939) in the 1890s in Vienna and looks at the internal conflicts within a subject's unconscious mind to create theories on the subject's personality development. It also allows treatment for psychological disorders based on these theories. In effect, Behaviourism and Psychodynamic approaches are polar opposites of each other in the techniques that they use to draw their conclusions. However, they do have one main similarity in the fact that they both draw on past experiences of the subject to define how they are as an adult, but they do this in very different ways. ...read more.

Middle

One of Freud's most famous experiments was 'Little Hans'. This was about a five year old boy who was afraid of horses, and was jealous of the birth of his sister. It was thought that Hans' anxiety culminated from his inner desire to be his mother's mate. Freud used Hans in order to help develop another of his theories - the 'Oedipus Complex' which is a small boy's inner jealousy of his father and fear of punishment by castration by him. It must be stressed that the turmoil Freud discovered is very much in the subconscious. There is also the Electra complex which is a small girl's inner belief that she has already been castrated and experiences 'penis envy'. This was a very complicated conclusion to derive from equinophobia, and has had a number of criticisms such as the discovery that just before the experiment took place, Hans witnessed an accident with a horse which resulted in a man losing his life. Behaviourists would argue that this would have been the root of Hans's problems and his inner turmoil could be relieved by using techniques to reintegrate the boy with horses. Both Psychoanalysis and Behaviourism have view on how we develop our gender roles. Freud based his theory on the case studies on five middle class Jewish women, and because of these limited methods Freud's theory has been highly criticised for not being representative, for being too over generalised and also as he ...read more.

Conclusion

Its scientific approach is very methodical and it is able to explain and correct undesirable behaviour by leaving a lasting impression upon the subject. This is especially felt in today's society with doctors and psychologists dealing with children with minor attention disorders. From psychoanalysis, psychotherapy grew. Psychotherapy is a way of treating psychological or emotional problems, through talking both about the issue and about other issues. The main focus is to talk the patient through their experience hoping to discover the personal feelings, relationships, and events that have created their vegetative behaviour. Freud first used this therapy whilst living in Austria where he was a practicing physician specializing in neurological disorders. When Freud could find no physical cause for an illness, he would experiment with this new therapy and in this way he found it extremely useful. It is now used widely across the world and is even a recommended treatment in the NHS and is also commonly known as counselling. To conclude this assignment, it is fair to say that neither theory can be deemed as the correct way to help a subject, as both have major areas of disadvantage as well as elements that are useful and effective within today's society. Psychologists will never be able to come up with a single tried and tested method to treat people due to the fact that every person is an individual with unique needs, so these theories will continue to be expanded and critiqued for many years to come. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This is a well written essay and the writer seems to have a clear understanding of the two different theories.

The writer compares and contrasts the approaches well and has written the essay in their own words

The writing could be slightly improved by taking on board the comments made to achieve full marks.

Star Rating 4*

Marked by teacher Linda Penn 14/10/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Behavioural Study of Obedience - Stanley Milgram

    5 star(s)

    A draw is fixed so that the real subject plays the part of the teacher. The victim is strapped into a chair. His wrists are covered with an electrode paste, and electrodes are placed upon the paste. The subject (teacher)

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast the main approaches - Biological and Behaviourist, biological and cognitive, ...

    4 star(s)

    The cognitive approach on the other hand believes that behaviour should be testable in a scientific manner; it should be measurable in a quantitative manner. Behaviour should be studied objectively and variables should be operationalised so they are simple and easy to measure.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and Evaluate Psychodynamic, Behaviourist and Humanist Theory of Psychology

    4 star(s)

    (Pennington, 2002) Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamics have received criticism. Some of Freud assumptions about the unconscious mind are regarded as unscientific as they can not be scientifically studied. The theory of repressed memories supposedly supressed during childhood and recovered through therapy as an adult has been cast into doubt since Freud first proposed his theory on the matter.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Psychology the factors of Smoking

    4 star(s)

    Their biological needs make them need too smoke for example when you are stressed or anxious you body feels that if you smoke you will feel better. It is also found that their addiction to the nicotine will also change them psychologically for the worse, they will commit crimes to

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast idiographic and nomothetic approaches to the study of Personality.

    Another positive feature of this approach is the depth of the investigation, which permits us to detect the unconscious processes more correctly. The big disadvantage of this method is the results are too subjective and unscientific; as a result there are different conclusions for each individual, which are suitable only to the individuals that were clinically diagnosed.

  2. Outline and Evaluate One Biological and One Psychological Explanation of Schizophrenia

    This idea was put forward by Liberman (1982). Belcher (1988) showed support for this through his study into teaching patients with schizophrenia appropriate behaviours. It was found that patients would act in a socially acceptable manner when they were rewarded in ways that were important to them (such as cigarettes or food).

  1. Define different theoretical perspectives used in counselling. Analyse the advantages and ...

    It was called cognitive because it focuses on thinking. The cognitive approach says that thinking and feeling come between the stimulus and the response and in order to help people who have problems with their behaviour, counsellors need to help them examine what they think and feel. The cognitive approach assumes that what people think and what they believe

  2. Discuss psychological therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder

    false which enables patients to control such compulsive behaviors (washing hands for 5 minutes opposed to 30 minutes). Researchers such as Wilhelm et al (2005) investigated the effectiveness of CT and found significant improvement in 15 patients who used CT alone for 14 sessions.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work