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Consider the extent to which psychological theories have been successful in explaining attachments.

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Introduction

Consider the extent to which psychological theories have been successful in explaining attachments. There are various psychological theories to regard as which have been successful in explaining attachments and I will be explaining the majority of them. Sigmund Freud developed a theory of personality - an explanation of how each individual's personality develops. This theory can be used to explain many aspects of behaviour, including attachment. Feud proposed that attachment grows out of the feeding relationship. In essence Freud claimed that infants are born with an innate drive to seek pleasure. He called this the pleasure principle, and suggested that one 'structure of the personality' (id) was motivated by this principle. The id is the primitive, instinctive part of our personality that demands immediate satisfaction. In infancy the id demands oral satisfaction. The person providing this satisfaction becomes the love object, and an object is formed. ...read more.

Middle

One wire mother had a feeding bottle attached and the other and the other was wrapped in soft cloth but offered no cloth. According to the learning theory, the young monkeys should have become attached to the 'mother' associated with food and offering drive reduction. In fact, the monkeys spent most time with the cloth-covered mother and would cling to it especially when they were frightened. These studies suggest that 'cupboard love' is not likely to be an explanation for attachment, though we must remember that this research concerned monkeys and it may not be wholly appropriate to generalise the findings to human behaviour. Schaffer and Emerson (1964) conducted an important study observing the development of attachments in 60 infants who came largely from working-class homes in Glasgow. The infants were observed over a period of a year in their homes. ...read more.

Conclusion

They appear to from an indelible picture of their parent within hours of birth, and this helps them stick closely to this important source of protection and food. A young animal who wanders away from its parent would have to find its own food and is likely to be eaten rather quickly Since imprinting is innate there is likely to be a limited window of development- a critical period. If the infant has not been exposed to a suitable object during this critical period, no imprinting will take place. Bowlby applied the concept of a sensitive period to attachment. He claimed that infants who did not form attachments by a certain age would find it difficult to become attached later. Although there are a wide range of theories which explain attachment, it is believable to accept many of them. For example, the behavourists approach which states that an infant becomes attached to an individual when that infant realises the certain individual is associated with feelings of pleasure like food. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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