• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Coping with stress

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Coping with stress There are two main approaches to stress management these are the physical approach and the psychological approach The physical approach One way of coping with stress is the use of drugs. Drugs are related to the bodily processes involved in the stress response. They interfere with the activity of the ANS. Barbiturates depress the activity in the central nervous system and reduce anxiety. For a long time these were used in stress management but have been known to cause undesirable side effects, such as slurred speech, and can be addictive. Valium and Librium are the most commonly used. They act on synapses and neurotransmitters, especially by promoting GABA, which is the body's natural form of anxiety relief. GABA reduces serotonin levels, a neurotransmitter related to arousal and aggression. The common side-effects of benzodiazepines include sleeplessness and dependence. Buspirone enhances the effects of serotonin, thus reducing anxiety, but also has side effects such as depression. Drugs can be effective in reducing stress but only in the short term. Drugs only deal with the symptoms and don't tackle with the real problem. In the long term drugs often have unpleasant side-effects and problems with dependence Biofeedback is a technique to learn voluntary control of involuntary muscles or voluntary muscles that can't normally be controlled, such as blood pressure and heart rate. ...read more.

Middle

This kind of treatment is costly time consuming and requires effort and commitment, if these cant be given it will not work. On the other hand biofeedback is non-invasive, has virtually no side-effects, and can be effective over the long term. Other physical methods of stress control include exercise as this improves circulation which strengthens the heart. Goldwater and collis (1985) found that exercise was positively related to decreased anxiety. Emotional discharge, expressing emotion through crying, anger or humour is also thought to help stress management. The psychological approach Stress inoculation therapy was proposed by Meichenbaum (1985). He proposed a form of therapy to protect an individual before dealing with stress rather than dealing with it afterwards. This is a form of cognitive therapy because it aims to change the way the individual thinks about their problem rather than changing the problem itself. There are three main phases to this therapy. These are: * Assessment, the therapist and patient discuss potential problem areas. * Stress reduction techniques are taught such as relaxation using self-coping statements such as 'stop worrying, because it's pointless'. * Application and follow-through, here a patient practices stress reduction techniques in role play, and then uses them in real life. ...read more.

Conclusion

This emphasises the transactional nature of the model . Support comes from Lazarus et al 1965 who tried to show how situational factors affected the stress response. Using 66 students he performed a laboratory experiment. Participants were shown a stressful film called "Woodshop" it contained some scenes of accidents in a sawmill. There were three situations under which the film was shown. * Situation 1: denial: participants were told that the people were actors, the events were staged and nobody was injured. * Situation2: intellectualisation: They were asked to consider the film in terms of its value for monitoring safety at work. * Situation 3: control: no instructions. Stress was assessed by measuring participants GSR and heart rate while they watched the film. They were also asked at the end to evaluate how stressful they thought the film was. In groups 1 and 2 they found lower physiological stress while watching the film and reported less after. From this they concluded the same event may be threatening or not, depending on how its contents are appraised. This can be used to explain individual differences in stress response to the same stressors. The model is especially appropriate to human behaviour because it incorporates the role of appraisal in the stress response. A weakness is that the model is descriptive rather than explanatory. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Peer Pressure Speech

    3 star(s)

    at the time you do not see it as bullying, although you may have doubts later. I do not think there is anyone at school who has not bullied someone in one way or another. A victim's point of view - When I was at primary school I got picked on non-stop for two years.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Managing stress through Exercise and Therapy

    3 star(s)

    Evaluation of the SRRS Individual Difference: The SRRS assumes that each stressor affects people the same way. Not necessarily true e.g. divorce can be amicable or even a relief. Most 43 life changes in the SRRS aren't everyday events. Kanner et al (1981)

  1. Stress can be explained as the stimulus in the environment that triggers a stress ...

    Men feel that anger is an acceptable way to respond, & feel stress if they can't show it. Commentary It's dangerous to make sweeping generalisations about all men & women responding to stress in particular ways. Someone's response to stress will also be affected by other stuff, like their culture, their personality & their individual coping methods.

  2. Anxiety and Pain

    suggests that the revised Beck & Clark (1997) model can be combined with neurobiological perspectives to provide a new model of PD. It is suggested that a dysfunction in the amygdala and the ascending transmitter system can lead to false alarm perceptions of threat, causing irrational fear and anxiety.

  1. Identify and discuss strategies for coping with Stress

    There is also the problem of prolonged and severe stress as many people's lifestyles can easily produce stressors and this increases their chances of a stress related illness. Much of the research regarding stressors and their long-term effects on the body comes from Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome (1956).

  2. Does a Music Therapy Intervention Reduce Anxiety in Patients either before or after invasive ...

    The research used a two group pre test, post test design with repeated measures however most of the conclusions are drawn between groups rather than from repeated procedures. The results were analysed using the ANOVA test of multi variance. The study found a significant reduction in state anxiety after trait anxiety had been controlled for.

  1. Stress in the Workplace : Why Is it Important to Deal with It?

    Sometimes all that is needed is the opportunity to be listened to, to ventilate without being judged. Sun-Herald 8/10/00 www.sunherald.com.au S T R E S S I N T H E W O R K P L A C E W H Y I T I S I M P

  2. There are many relaxation techniques for stress but in this essay it will look ...

    In 1961, Miller suggested that the autonomic nervous system responses could be adjusted under voluntary control. The autonomic nervous system controls the heart rate, blood pressure, gastrointestinal activity and regional blood flow. Results from his experiments proved the autonomic process was possibly controllable, these experiments led to the creation of biofeedback therapy.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work