• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Critically consider research into the role of cultural factors in the development of intelligence test performance

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Critically consider research into the role of cultural factors in the development of intelligence test performance Intelligence can be defined in several ways, ranging from broader definitions such as the ability to cope with life, to more specific definitions such as skill in problem-solving and reasoning. Intelligence tests are implemented by psychologists in order to assess such skills, and a quantitative measure of this intelligence is usually presented in the form of an IQ (intelligence quotient). IQ scores are the basis of much research into the development of intelligence test performance. One cultural factor which may have an affect on a child's measured intelligence is mother love; attachments may play a part in children's cognitive development. This hypothesis can be tested by studying children who have been separated from an attachment object (i.e. a parent), and Skeels & Dye found evidence to suggest that the formation of an attachment improves intelligence test performance. In their study, 13 of the most mentally retarded infants in an orphanage were moved to an institution for mentally retarded women, where they would form an attachment with a mildly retarded woman. ...read more.

Middle

This indicates that an increased quality of education may lead to an increase in IQ. Another cultural factor that may influence the development of measured intelligence is a child's home environment. Bradley et al. Identified six factors, including parental involvement and the provision of play materials, which were significant in a child's development of intelligence, and called it the HOME inventory. If the HOME score of a child was low, a child's IQ may have declined between 10 and 20 points between the ages 1 and 3, whereas the opposite was true for those with high HOME inventory scores. This theory would be supported by Piaget and Vygotsky, the theories of both of whom suggest that the provision of age-appropriate play materials are likely to improve cognitive development. In addition, Vygotsky emphasises the role of culture in cognitive development, which is very much in line with the HOME inventory study. It may even be that diet is a cultural factor which has an influence on a child's development of intelligence. In a study by Sch´┐Żnthaler & Bier, children who had been given vitamin-mineral supplements performed better on a non-verbal IQ test than those who had been given a placebo. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, this does not necessarily indicate that it is a genetic cause, since skin colour and intelligence are believed to have very different genetic structures. It may be in indirect genetic influence, in that black children raised in a white home have lower self-expectation, or that they socialise with other black children at school (which may have more of an influence than their white, middle-class home). IQ tests have, however, been heavily criticised for lacking reliability, as an IQ result from one test can vary dramatically with an IQ result from another. Additionally, they have been criticised for being culturally biased; there are many different types of thought (e.g. language, problem-solving, pattern recognition, reasoning), and some types of thought are more valued in some cultures than in others. This may extend to sub-cultural differences between people of different socioeconomic status. For example, it has often been found that black American children perform less well on IQ tests than white children, however, Serpell (1979) found that white children performed significantly less well than black children on an IQ test aimed at black Americans. This brings into question the use of IQ tests as a valid method of measuring intelligence. Clive Newstead ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay


Summary

The writer has included quite a few studies in this essay, although some of them have not been referenced properly. However, some more important studies have been left out, eg. twin studies. In order to improve the score the essay should have been written from a well organised plan. For example, cultural factors needed to be explained first, before going on to cite various studies. It is not clear from the writing which cultural factors the writer is discussing. Then the writer needs to choose which studies are more relevant in order to meet the essay requirements.

Rating 2 *

Marked by teacher Linda Penn 07/08/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I am going to contrast and compare three approaches in psychology ...

    4 star(s)

    The fact that the success of its therapies particularly counselling depends on counsellor's skills is also a limitation because it has been difficult to prove what makes a good counsellor. All these approaches have different ways to support someone through transition and change.

  2. Critically assess Piaget's theory of cognitive development

    Piaget believed that equilibrium occurs when a child achieves a balance between assimilation and accommodation. As a child moves through developmental stages it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge and modifying behaviour to account for new knowledge.

  1. Primacy and Recency effect

    memory store which has a greater and permanent storage of information rather than the short term memory where the information can be lost if unattended. Primary effect is due transfer of the words to the long term memory store through rehearsal and the Recency effect was due to still the words being in the short term memory store.

  2. Stroop Test Experiment

    EEG and fMRI studies of the Stroop effect have revealed selective activation of the anterior cingulate cortex during a stroop task, a prefrontal structure in the brain which is hypothesized to be responsible for conflict monitoring. HYPOTHESES AIM: The aim of this experiment is to test the stroop effect by

  1. Memory is an important area of study in Psychology because it underpins our other ...

    It was made certain that each subject couldn't see anyone else's answers. Before the experiment began it was explained to the subjects what was going to happen. (See Appendix A for the standardized Instructions read out) Once the subjects were clear with what was happening the list of words was read out that they later had to recall.

  2. What are heuristics? How do they help us make decisions or solve problems? How ...

    They do yield good results when they are used in the appropriate context. However, heuristics can also hinder decision making and problem solving. For example, Anzai & Simon(1979) found that many subjects used domain dependent strategies while solving the tower of Hanoi problem.

  1. Discuss the role of emotion in psychology

    Conway et al used Mrs Thatcher's resignation as the basis for the creation of flashbulb memories. 11 months after 86% of the UK participants has a strong and consistent flashbulb memory compared to only 29% participants from other countries. This research suggests that flashbulb memories will only be strong if

  2. Evaluate 3 Approaches to treating Mental Disorders: Psychodynamic, Biological and Behavioural Approach.

    relax and talk freely about their past, childhood, dreams, personal experiences and memories that they feel are affecting them while the therapist takes notes and tries to interpret these thoughts, feelings and memories. However due to the nature of defence mechanisms and the inaccessibility of the inevitable forces operating in

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work