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Culture Bias

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There are two types of cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis. During mitosis an exact replica of the parent cell is produced, these are known as 'daughter cells', essentially copies of the parent cell - as they contain the identical genetic information. This type of cell replication allows for the replacement of damaged/old cells, tissue repair, and growth - these cells are sometimes referred to as 'somatic cells'. In sexually reproducing organisms, cells known as 'sex cells' are able to divide by another called meiosis. This type of cell division results in the production of gametes. Meiosis involves two subsequent divisions of genetic material. ...read more.


Meiosis is a process which not only halves the number of chromosomes in the parent cell; it also introduces genetic variation into the gametes and therefore the resulting zygotes that may eventually be produced. There are two events that occur during meiosis that help to produce genetic various, these are: * Independent assortment * Crossing over Independent Assortment: In human cells there are 23 homologous pairs of chromosomes. This means that during meiosis I there are many different possible arrangements of these pairs. How homologous chromosomes line up during meiosis I determines, in the end, the combination of chromosomes that end up ends up in each gamete. ...read more.


When both copies of a gene are identical the expression of that gene may include traits that are less beneficial to survival or reproduction in particular circumstances. This may lead to physiological or behavioural problems of genetic origin, such as malformed physical structure, poor biochemical balance, improper organ formation and function, altered social behaviour, and susceptibility to disease. The Torreya taxifolia is considered to be one of the rarest species of Jew in North American. However, in the early Holocene, when the climate in south-eastern North America was cooler and considerably more humid than today, the species was likely more prevalent. As the T. Taxifolia failed to migrate North as the climate changed; it is now today restricted to a few locations in the southeastern region of the United States. ...read more.

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