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Deprivation, short term and long term effects.

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Introduction

Essay Plan Deprivation is the loss of something. The term is most often used in the fields of maternal; deprivation, where the child is deprived of the love of the primary attachment figure. Deprivation implies that the separation has entailed some bond distribution-separation plus disruption or loss of attachments. Short term effects Name/date Findings Evaluation Robertson and Bowlby (1952) Maccoby 1980 Stacey et al.1970 Kotelchuck 1976 Barlington and Anna Freud 1942-44 Barrett 1997 Spitz 1945 Spitz and wolf 1940 Found that there were three progressive reactions to separation: protest, despair and detachment. Children in study aged between 1-4, were placed by their parents in residential nurseries (mother or they were entering hospital) Separations are likely to be more distressing between seven and eight months and three years, reaching between 12 and 18 months. Studied 4-year-old children in Wales who went into hospital to have their tonsils removed. They stayed for days and their parents were not able to stay overnight. Using the SS, found that when fathers are actively involved as caretakers, children are more comfortable when left alone with strangers and the period during which children strongly protest at separation was shorter if they were cared for by both parents. Institutions can provide high quality substitute care, an example being Hampstead nursery, where stability affection and active involvement were encouraged. ...read more.

Middle

An evaluation of maternal D H shows more evidence came from children in institutions- who where deprived in many ways. Others from deprivation (e.g. physical deprivation) Not all research has found that separations lead to maladjustment. Therefore it would no appear that separation does not have harmful effects, as long as bond distribution is minimized. Bowlbys thieves study 1944 Conducted research with 88 clients from child guidance clinic where he worked as a psychiatrist. 44 of children stealing, Bowlby said "affectionless psychopaths", little sense of social responsibility no guilt, other children not committed crimes, they were emotional maladjusted did not display antisocial behaviour. Bowlby interviewed the children and their families and he built up a record of their early life experience. 86%-diagnosed as affectionless psychopaths, had experienced early and prolonged separations from their mothers, whereas the very few of the non-psychopaths thieves or the other children had experienced such separations. Other studies which influence later behaviour other than deprivation. Hospitalisation Douglas (1975) Quinton and Rutter 1976 Goldfarb 1943 Deprivation due to death and divorce, Richards 1987 Hetherington et al. 1979 Analysed data collected as a part of the national survey of health and development, a study of 5000 children born during one week in 1946. The children were assessed at regular intervals up to the age of 26. Douglas found that children who had spent more than a week in hospital, or had experienced repeated admissions under the age of 4, were more likely to have behaviour problems in adolescence and to be poor readers. ...read more.

Conclusion

Prolonged separation may lead some children to experience anaclitic depression but this depends on many individual variables (Barrett 1997). One of the most important conclusions from the research is that the problems experienced by children in deprivation studies cannot necessarily be attributed to separation from attachment figures. Deprivation is associated with many other variables: physical neglect, lack of substitute care, discord in the home, and poor relationships prior to separation. It may be these that are correlated with later difficulties and not separation per se. Even when damage is done, it is not irreversible. Tizard and Hodges (1978) showed that later adopted children could develop positive relationships with others despite early deprivation. Clarke and Clarke (1976) presented a number of case studies of children that showed that careful therapy could help them overcome earlier difficulties. Because there is no critical period for human attachment, profound developmental effects as a result of short-term separations are not likely. The long-term effects of deprivation are less clear but: separations do not necessarily lead to any psychological problems. Too much of the evidence is correlation and does not consider that a third variable/factor may explain both separations and later problems. Parental separation may mean that there is increasing discord at the time, or later, or perhaps less supervision of the child given by a single parent. These latter variables might be the real causes of the delinquency, not the separation itself. No clear casual link can be inferred between separation and developmental problems and delinquency. ...read more.

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