• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe and evaluate any two approaches and critically consider how successful your chosen approaches have been applied to real life?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Christian Howard Describe and evaluate any two approaches and critically consider how successful your chosen approaches have been applied to real life? In this essay there will be a evaluation of the theoretical perspectives of behaviourism and the biological approach. Also there will be a discussion of their prevalence in therapy and in particular in stimulant and psychological disorders. The behaviourist approaches founder was J.B. Watson , he wrote the 'Behaviourist Manifesto' in 1910 and believed that for psychology to be a science it needed to model itself on the natural sciences and transform the area of interest from mind to behaviour. Watson believed that learning occurred by association , if two stimulus were associated in a sequence, the repetition of this was essential for learning. This was known as the 'law of exercise' (6). The themes of behaviour shaping and learning are important ideas in a behaviourist psychology. A key is that learning takes place by conditioning; learned behaviour is described in stimulus- response psychology. These techniques of learning theory are known as operant and classical conditioning. J.B. Watson's early summations was furthered in classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov in (1927). ...read more.

Middle

An adaptive behaviour approach is known as the token economy system this is used in psychiatric institutions. The token system awards patients for socially desirable and constructive behaviour .The tokens (CS) at an operant level, are given for good behaviour, for example, tidying their room. The token is the secondary reinforcer while the primary reinforcer are the rewards that can be exchanged for tokens .These privileges include favourite television programmes or a consultation with a psychologist (2). The idea is to assert independence in the patient's life so their less reliant on the carer. Walker (1984) agrees this has had positive effects. "There seems little doubt that well run token economy programmes do produce behaviour change, in the required direction even among chronic instutionalized schizophrenics." A further point is that in this system the appearance of disruptive behaviour is less likely, as 'abnormal' behaviour cannot function with adaptive ones (5). However, there has been criticisms, firstly unconditional rewards are rarely apparent in non institutionalised settings. Transferring to social reinforces in society can be a problem. "A mercenary approach can be taken to learning. Unproductive in the outside, where it is necessary to learn to operate on a subtler and less immediate award system". ...read more.

Conclusion

However, this does not mean that the human is seen holistically as in humanist psychology. Also a main difference, in the biological perspective is that behaviour is determinstic through genetics, a example is schizophrenia, this disorder is based on biology so it should be alleviated with a bio chemical based therapy. However, a behaviourisr would summate that behaviour modification and so learning and reinforcing behaviour is a therapeutic solution. A main difference here is the role enviroment has in this instance, from biological perspective enviroment factors are not of interest as everything is a biological cause. However, a behavioural theory would see environment as in the behaviour modification factors as a basis for behaviour shaping. Both approaches advocate the use of animals in experiments, they believe in controllable experiments these approaches could be said to be reductionist as the similarities between species, for example, cancer and rats and learning differences have given differing results. There is also ethical considerations a early behaviourist study known as 'the operant conditioning of vegetative organism' and biological experimentation on primates, gives questionable morality issues. However, these approaches have improved the lives of many mental health patients through, techniques of behaviour modification to chemotherapy , improving their quality of life and utilty in society. - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Contrast Principles of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    3 star(s)

    But, eventually the racoon would not give up the coins but would rub them together in it's paws and then dip them into the bank before taking them out again, (this is how they behave naturally in their environment). The Brelands found that even after conditioning behaviour will drift back towards instinct after time.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Behaviourist Perspective

    3 star(s)

    reinforce it. * The basic principles of behaviourism hold for all the species, therefore studying one species has relevance to other species. Contributions * Behaviourism, in its various forms, has been a major influence in many areas; motivation and therapy are just two.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Outline the theoretical framework of Classical Conditioning and consider whether humans can be classically ...

    4 star(s)

    So Pavlov started to introduce a bell when he fed the dogs so that they would associate the sound of the bell with the food. So this made the dogs salivate to the sound of the bell and this is what Classical Conditioning is.

  2. Describe And Evaluate Two Approaches In Psychology. - Psychodynamics and Behaviourism

    There are a number of reasons for this. Freud had already published his theories of sexuality and had already made up his mind what was wrong with Hans. His father and not Freud conducted the psychoanalysis of Hans. Freud only saw the boy on one or two occasions.

  1. Task1 Counselling 1aPhysical signs and symptoms of stress

    Where the environment is chaotic and the primary caregiver is not available to the child, then secure attachment will not be possible. P21 Relate theorists to Mrs A Spitz would suggest that Mrs A has failed to develop as a child socially and psychologically and suffers from depression starting in

  2. PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    Biological Markers There is some evidence that impulsive personality traits are links with levels of serotonin activity in the brain (Siever & Davis, 1991; cited in Paris, 1993) A psychobiological model relates personality traits and disorders to variation in neurotransmitter interactions.

  1. Free essay

    Unmasking Anxiety with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    I'll never be in a loving relationship again." On a scale of 1 to 100, he was plagued by this thought by 100%. He then recognized the cognitive distortions from the thought, and countered it with a positive one: "1.

  2. Using studies from the list below, answer the questions which follow: Rosenhan (sane in ...

    * Irrationality and incomprehensibility: One of the characteristics of abnormal behaviour is that there appears to be no good reason why the person should choose to behave in that way. * Observer discomfort: Our social behaviour is governed by a number of unspoken rules about behaviour, such as the way we maintain eye contact or personal space.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work