• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe and evaluate any two approaches and critically consider how successful your chosen approaches have been applied to real life?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Christian Howard Describe and evaluate any two approaches and critically consider how successful your chosen approaches have been applied to real life? In this essay there will be a evaluation of the theoretical perspectives of behaviourism and the biological approach. Also there will be a discussion of their prevalence in therapy and in particular in stimulant and psychological disorders. The behaviourist approaches founder was J.B. Watson , he wrote the 'Behaviourist Manifesto' in 1910 and believed that for psychology to be a science it needed to model itself on the natural sciences and transform the area of interest from mind to behaviour. Watson believed that learning occurred by association , if two stimulus were associated in a sequence, the repetition of this was essential for learning. This was known as the 'law of exercise' (6). The themes of behaviour shaping and learning are important ideas in a behaviourist psychology. A key is that learning takes place by conditioning; learned behaviour is described in stimulus- response psychology. These techniques of learning theory are known as operant and classical conditioning. J.B. Watson's early summations was furthered in classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov in (1927). ...read more.

Middle

An adaptive behaviour approach is known as the token economy system this is used in psychiatric institutions. The token system awards patients for socially desirable and constructive behaviour .The tokens (CS) at an operant level, are given for good behaviour, for example, tidying their room. The token is the secondary reinforcer while the primary reinforcer are the rewards that can be exchanged for tokens .These privileges include favourite television programmes or a consultation with a psychologist (2). The idea is to assert independence in the patient's life so their less reliant on the carer. Walker (1984) agrees this has had positive effects. "There seems little doubt that well run token economy programmes do produce behaviour change, in the required direction even among chronic instutionalized schizophrenics." A further point is that in this system the appearance of disruptive behaviour is less likely, as 'abnormal' behaviour cannot function with adaptive ones (5). However, there has been criticisms, firstly unconditional rewards are rarely apparent in non institutionalised settings. Transferring to social reinforces in society can be a problem. "A mercenary approach can be taken to learning. Unproductive in the outside, where it is necessary to learn to operate on a subtler and less immediate award system". ...read more.

Conclusion

However, this does not mean that the human is seen holistically as in humanist psychology. Also a main difference, in the biological perspective is that behaviour is determinstic through genetics, a example is schizophrenia, this disorder is based on biology so it should be alleviated with a bio chemical based therapy. However, a behaviourisr would summate that behaviour modification and so learning and reinforcing behaviour is a therapeutic solution. A main difference here is the role enviroment has in this instance, from biological perspective enviroment factors are not of interest as everything is a biological cause. However, a behavioural theory would see environment as in the behaviour modification factors as a basis for behaviour shaping. Both approaches advocate the use of animals in experiments, they believe in controllable experiments these approaches could be said to be reductionist as the similarities between species, for example, cancer and rats and learning differences have given differing results. There is also ethical considerations a early behaviourist study known as 'the operant conditioning of vegetative organism' and biological experimentation on primates, gives questionable morality issues. However, these approaches have improved the lives of many mental health patients through, techniques of behaviour modification to chemotherapy , improving their quality of life and utilty in society. - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast two of the main approaches to personality psychology

    3 star(s)

    potty training). People who get fixated at this stage may develop "anal retentive" personality. This means they will hold everything in including their emotions; they are very obsessive about neatness and cleanliness as well as being mean and obstinate. The third stage is phallic stage emerges at three and lasts until five years of age.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Behaviourist Perspective

    3 star(s)

    It can be positive- as when a child is given a reward for good behaviour-or negative- when bad behaviour is ignored (not punished). * Punishment can be seen as positive reinforces, as it pays attention to bad behaviour and therefore (may)

  1. Peer reviewed

    Outline the theoretical framework of Classical Conditioning and consider whether humans can be classically ...

    4 star(s)

    So Pavlov started to introduce a bell when he fed the dogs so that they would associate the sound of the bell with the food. So this made the dogs salivate to the sound of the bell and this is what Classical Conditioning is.

  2. Describe And Evaluate Two Approaches In Psychology. - Psychodynamics and Behaviourism

    There are a number of reasons for this. Freud had already published his theories of sexuality and had already made up his mind what was wrong with Hans. His father and not Freud conducted the psychoanalysis of Hans. Freud only saw the boy on one or two occasions.

  1. Describe And Evaluate Two Approaches In Psychology - Sigmund Freud

    However it seems difficult to explain the id, ego, and superego scientifically as the concepts are far to abstract. His theory is good for explaining things retrospectively, however how can we use the theory for prediction? Freud's theories are too ambiguous and can be used to explain most things depending on how you interpret them.

  2. PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    Susanna Kaysen, whose life story was told in Girl Interrupted, was diagnosed with borderline personality disorder because amongst other things she was sexually active, which at the time was considered socially unacceptable and self-damaging. The same behaviour in the 21st century would not be considered deviant and in some sub-cultures would be considered as abnormal not to be sexually active.

  1. Free essay

    Unmasking Anxiety with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Walter believed this thought 95%, and after countering his negative thought, was only bothered 15% by the original thought (139). These types of exercise teach the individual how to manage their anxiety, which can lead to more permanent results. CBT exercises are not exclusively found in Dr.

  2. Using studies from the list below, answer the questions which follow: Rosenhan (sane in ...

    The more of these features that are possessed by the individual, the more likely they are to be considered abnormal. Rosenhan and Seligman's Seven Features of abnormality include: * Suffering: Most abnormal individuals (such as those suffering with anxiety disorders)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work