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Describe and evaluate any two approaches and critically consider how successful your chosen approaches have been applied to real life?

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Introduction

Christian Howard Describe and evaluate any two approaches and critically consider how successful your chosen approaches have been applied to real life? In this essay there will be a evaluation of the theoretical perspectives of behaviourism and the biological approach. Also there will be a discussion of their prevalence in therapy and in particular in stimulant and psychological disorders. The behaviourist approaches founder was J.B. Watson , he wrote the 'Behaviourist Manifesto' in 1910 and believed that for psychology to be a science it needed to model itself on the natural sciences and transform the area of interest from mind to behaviour. Watson believed that learning occurred by association , if two stimulus were associated in a sequence, the repetition of this was essential for learning. This was known as the 'law of exercise' (6). The themes of behaviour shaping and learning are important ideas in a behaviourist psychology. A key is that learning takes place by conditioning; learned behaviour is described in stimulus- response psychology. These techniques of learning theory are known as operant and classical conditioning. J.B. Watson's early summations was furthered in classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov in (1927). ...read more.

Middle

An adaptive behaviour approach is known as the token economy system this is used in psychiatric institutions. The token system awards patients for socially desirable and constructive behaviour .The tokens (CS) at an operant level, are given for good behaviour, for example, tidying their room. The token is the secondary reinforcer while the primary reinforcer are the rewards that can be exchanged for tokens .These privileges include favourite television programmes or a consultation with a psychologist (2). The idea is to assert independence in the patient's life so their less reliant on the carer. Walker (1984) agrees this has had positive effects. "There seems little doubt that well run token economy programmes do produce behaviour change, in the required direction even among chronic instutionalized schizophrenics." A further point is that in this system the appearance of disruptive behaviour is less likely, as 'abnormal' behaviour cannot function with adaptive ones (5). However, there has been criticisms, firstly unconditional rewards are rarely apparent in non institutionalised settings. Transferring to social reinforces in society can be a problem. "A mercenary approach can be taken to learning. Unproductive in the outside, where it is necessary to learn to operate on a subtler and less immediate award system". ...read more.

Conclusion

However, this does not mean that the human is seen holistically as in humanist psychology. Also a main difference, in the biological perspective is that behaviour is determinstic through genetics, a example is schizophrenia, this disorder is based on biology so it should be alleviated with a bio chemical based therapy. However, a behaviourisr would summate that behaviour modification and so learning and reinforcing behaviour is a therapeutic solution. A main difference here is the role enviroment has in this instance, from biological perspective enviroment factors are not of interest as everything is a biological cause. However, a behavioural theory would see environment as in the behaviour modification factors as a basis for behaviour shaping. Both approaches advocate the use of animals in experiments, they believe in controllable experiments these approaches could be said to be reductionist as the similarities between species, for example, cancer and rats and learning differences have given differing results. There is also ethical considerations a early behaviourist study known as 'the operant conditioning of vegetative organism' and biological experimentation on primates, gives questionable morality issues. However, these approaches have improved the lives of many mental health patients through, techniques of behaviour modification to chemotherapy , improving their quality of life and utilty in society. - 1 - ...read more.

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