• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe and evaluate any two approaches and critically consider how successful your chosen approaches have been applied to real life?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Christian Howard Describe and evaluate any two approaches and critically consider how successful your chosen approaches have been applied to real life? In this essay there will be a evaluation of the theoretical perspectives of behaviourism and the biological approach. Also there will be a discussion of their prevalence in therapy and in particular in stimulant and psychological disorders. The behaviourist approaches founder was J.B. Watson , he wrote the 'Behaviourist Manifesto' in 1910 and believed that for psychology to be a science it needed to model itself on the natural sciences and transform the area of interest from mind to behaviour. Watson believed that learning occurred by association , if two stimulus were associated in a sequence, the repetition of this was essential for learning. This was known as the 'law of exercise' (6). The themes of behaviour shaping and learning are important ideas in a behaviourist psychology. A key is that learning takes place by conditioning; learned behaviour is described in stimulus- response psychology. These techniques of learning theory are known as operant and classical conditioning. J.B. Watson's early summations was furthered in classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov in (1927). ...read more.

Middle

An adaptive behaviour approach is known as the token economy system this is used in psychiatric institutions. The token system awards patients for socially desirable and constructive behaviour .The tokens (CS) at an operant level, are given for good behaviour, for example, tidying their room. The token is the secondary reinforcer while the primary reinforcer are the rewards that can be exchanged for tokens .These privileges include favourite television programmes or a consultation with a psychologist (2). The idea is to assert independence in the patient's life so their less reliant on the carer. Walker (1984) agrees this has had positive effects. "There seems little doubt that well run token economy programmes do produce behaviour change, in the required direction even among chronic instutionalized schizophrenics." A further point is that in this system the appearance of disruptive behaviour is less likely, as 'abnormal' behaviour cannot function with adaptive ones (5). However, there has been criticisms, firstly unconditional rewards are rarely apparent in non institutionalised settings. Transferring to social reinforces in society can be a problem. "A mercenary approach can be taken to learning. Unproductive in the outside, where it is necessary to learn to operate on a subtler and less immediate award system". ...read more.

Conclusion

However, this does not mean that the human is seen holistically as in humanist psychology. Also a main difference, in the biological perspective is that behaviour is determinstic through genetics, a example is schizophrenia, this disorder is based on biology so it should be alleviated with a bio chemical based therapy. However, a behaviourisr would summate that behaviour modification and so learning and reinforcing behaviour is a therapeutic solution. A main difference here is the role enviroment has in this instance, from biological perspective enviroment factors are not of interest as everything is a biological cause. However, a behavioural theory would see environment as in the behaviour modification factors as a basis for behaviour shaping. Both approaches advocate the use of animals in experiments, they believe in controllable experiments these approaches could be said to be reductionist as the similarities between species, for example, cancer and rats and learning differences have given differing results. There is also ethical considerations a early behaviourist study known as 'the operant conditioning of vegetative organism' and biological experimentation on primates, gives questionable morality issues. However, these approaches have improved the lives of many mental health patients through, techniques of behaviour modification to chemotherapy , improving their quality of life and utilty in society. - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Behaviourist Perspective

    3 star(s)

    The theories have developed therapeutic and educational applications. This can be expressed from my knowledge that the therapeutic side of the side of the study, is you can try out and experiment what Pavlov and Skinner did to look at how animals response to these learning's.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Contrast Principles of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    3 star(s)

    the boy they thought it would be just as easy to un-condition him and because they were successful, classical conditioning is now commonly used in treating behaviour problems. Some of the therapies for classical conditioning include systematic desensitisation, Wolpe developed this in 1958 and is a technique based on counter

  1. Peer reviewed

    Outline the theoretical framework of Classical Conditioning and consider whether humans can be classically ...

    4 star(s)

    So Pavlov started to introduce a bell when he fed the dogs so that they would associate the sound of the bell with the food. So this made the dogs salivate to the sound of the bell and this is what Classical Conditioning is.

  2. Describe And Evaluate Two Approaches In Psychology. - Psychodynamics and Behaviourism

    There are a number of reasons for this. Freud had already published his theories of sexuality and had already made up his mind what was wrong with Hans. His father and not Freud conducted the psychoanalysis of Hans. Freud only saw the boy on one or two occasions.

  1. Task1 Counselling 1aPhysical signs and symptoms of stress

    Where the environment is chaotic and the primary caregiver is not available to the child, then secure attachment will not be possible. P21 Relate theorists to Mrs A Spitz would suggest that Mrs A has failed to develop as a child socially and psychologically and suffers from depression starting in

  2. Using studies from the list below, answer the questions which follow: Rosenhan (sane in ...

    She also seemed to have a very different physical presence in terms of manner, gestures and eye movements. When asked her name, she immediately replied that she was Eve Black.') In the study of Raine, Bauchsbaum and LaCasse (1997) : Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by Positron Emission Tomography (PET),

  1. PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    "Borderline personality disorder refers to a level of personality organisation (i.e. one that is fairly immature) that cuts across categorical disorders, rather than a discrete syndrome" (Morey, 1993, p156) Cross Cultural Validity Definitions of "normal" personality may differ from culture to culture.

  2. Free essay

    Unmasking Anxiety with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    From that point, treatment can follow catering to the SDB's. To continue, Compassion exercises are exceptionally helpful for those with PTSD who may suffer from extreme guilt. Perfectionists benefit from this treatment too, finding that it is acceptable to make mistakes (133).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work