• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe and evaluate one alternative to the multistore model of memory

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe and evaluate one alternative to the multistore model of memory The working memory model was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) as a way to represent short-term memory in terms of further subdivisions. It suggests that working memory consists of three components. These are the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. The central executive is the component of working memory which is modality free (i.e. not visual or auditory). It is the most important component in the model and is responsible for monitoring and coordinating the operation of the slave systems. It is flexible, in that it can process information from any modality and also has some storage capacity, although this is very limited. It seems to play a major role in attention, planning and in synthesising information, not only from the slave systems but also from LTM. The phonological loop stores a limited number of sounds for brief periods and can be thought of as an inner ear. ...read more.

Middle

For example, Baddeley et al. (1975) conducted a series of studies which investigated the word-length effect. They found that memory span for visually presented one syllable words was significantly greater than for polysyllabic words. This suggests that the phonological loop is only able to hold a limited number of syllables. However, subsequent studies demonstrated that articulation time, rather than number of syllables, was the limiting factor. They compared span performance on two-syllable words such as 'cricket' and 'bishop', which are spoken quickly, with performance on two-syllable words such as 'harpoon' and 'Friday', which take longer to say. Recall was consistently better for the words which can be articulated more quickly. If participants are prevented from rehearsing the words subvocally by having to repeat an irrelevant sound such as la-la-la...' (articulatory suppression), the word-length effect disappears. It is assumed that the articulatory suppression task fills the phonological loop and, therefore, takes away the advantage of rehearsal. Based on the results of these studies, Baddeley and colleagues concluded that memory span is dependent on time rather than the number of items and that people can remember as much as they are able to say in approximately 1.5 seconds. ...read more.

Conclusion

This model has proved influential and is still being developed and expanded. The main weakness, however, is that the component we know least about (the central executive) is the most important. It has a limited capacity, but no one has been able to quantify it experimentally. Richardson (1984) argues that there are problems in specifying the precise functioning of the central executive. He believes that the terminology is vague and can be used to explain any kind of results. In other words, it can give rise to a circular argument, i.e. if we give participants an articulatory suppression task and this affects performance, we assume the phonological loop is normally utilised in the task, but if performance is not affected, we assume the central executive is normally utilised in the task. Hence, it is difficult to falsify the model. My view is that we cannot falsify this model since the model is still being expanded and inaccurate ideas can be amended in the process, meanwhile, it can still be thought of as a basis for further investigation. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Summary

The writer has written a concise essay about the 'working memory model'. The essay included some of the main studies which have been carried out in this field, but would receive a higher score if they included some more up to date research. The writer needs to make sure that the essay is well constructed with a clear introduction and conclusion.They must also use their own words throughout.

Score 3*

Marked by teacher Linda Penn 10/09/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I am going to contrast and compare three approaches in psychology ...

    4 star(s)

    Client-centred therapy, also known as counselling, helps a person make freewill choices to make them closer to the person they want to be as long as the therapist displays genuine warmth, shows empathy, and provide accurate insight into the client's life.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and evaluate the Multi-store Model of memory.

    3 star(s)

    Atkinson and Shiffrin believed that memory traces in STM are fragile and can be lost within about 30 seconds unless rehearsed/ repeated. Information here can also be lost through displacement, due to the duration. Material that is rehearsed is passed onto the LTM store where it can remain for a

  1. Investigate into the Primacy and Recency effect

    This, one tailed hypothesis was formulated as previous research has indicated the existence of a primacy effect, and the elimination of the recency effect when using an interference task. However when undertaking the same task without interference there should be both a primacy and recency effect.

  2. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    He called this theory the Working Memory. Information in the working memory is held until sense can be made. For example, when listening to a friend, we must hold information from the beginning of the sentence until the sentence has been completed so that we can make sense of the sentence as a whole.

  1. effects of chunking and unchunking on short term memory

    Looking at research mainly by Jacobs (1887) and Miller (1956) the following hypotheses have been drawn up. Alternate Hypothesis Significantly more digits will be recalled accurately in sequence in the chunked condition than in the un-chunked condition. Null Hypothesis There is no difference in the number of digits recalled in the chunked or un-chunked condition.

  2. Outline and evaluate one 'early selection theory' (Broadbent or Treisman) and one 'late selection ...

    Also this model could explain Cherry's findings in that the non shadowed messages were not allowed to pass through the filter. However there are studies producing inconsistent data according to Broadbent's theory. According to Broadbent, the unattended messages cannot be recalled in terms of the meaning.

  1. Describe the application of behaviorist perspectives in health and social care. Describe the application ...

    As salivation is linked with becoming into contact with food due to being a reflexive response Pavlov seed this as abnormal as he thought salivation was a result of the food actually making contact with the tongue. From this is grasped that the dog began to salivate because it had

  2. How interference affects memory recall

    Variables My IV is whether participants listen to music for 1min 30 seconds after they have learnt the list of words or whether they recall the words straight away. My DV is the number of words recalled. Participants and Sampling My target population is students age 16 to 17 years old.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work