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Describe and evaluate the research into factors which influence the development of attachments in humans during their first year of life.

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Introduction

DESCRIBE AND EVALUATE THE RESEARCH INTO FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF ATTACHMENTS IN HUMANS DURING THEIR FIRST YEAR OF LIFE. Attachment is a mutual and instance emotional relationship between an infant and its caregiver(s). Attachment aids many key functions for the survival of the child as it ensures closeness of the caregiver ensuring safety. Attachments provide a emotionally secure base from which promote self development. Attachments also act as a model for later emotional relationships. The Behaviourists theory states that hunger and pain are all biological drives which motivate an infant. An infant is attached to those who reinforce their social signals and who provide pleasant experiences, the caregiver acts as a conditional reinforce. The Psychodynamic approach believes that an infant is born with innate drives towards sensory, and love has its origins in attachments. ...read more.

Middle

Anxious attachments results from mothers who respond less readily to an infants needs. Secure attachments occurs when a mother is sensitive, sees things from an infant's point of view and is accepting. The first stage of forming attachments is named asocial this stage is between 0 and 2 months. An infant produces a similar responses to social stimuli. The infant responds to voices and faces shows recognition of main caregivers by being more settled if held by that person. The second stage indisrinate is between 2 and 7months, an infant has preference for any company and complains when put down. The third stage specific is between 7 and 9 months, infant protest when separated from one particular individual and displays stranger anxiety. The final stage multiple is from 9 months on, soon after the main attachment figure is formed a wider circle of attachment to familiar people also develops. ...read more.

Conclusion

Schaffer criticised the idea of bonding like super glue, he argued that the experimental studies don't provide support for the idea that early contact enhances mother infant bonds and suggests that the claims about bonding fail to act explain the complexing and changing nature of human relationships. Adoption - most adoptions take place early before bonding begins. All adoptive kids children probably experience some sense of loss (deprivation) but Singer found that in adoptive children attachments were equally high as non-adoptive kids. Attachment disorder is an recognised syndrome in the USA with symptoms such as being unable to form relationships showing little emotion and engine in very aggressive and controlling behaviour. Children with this disorder have invariably been adopted after six months , subsequently experiences multiple foster homes or care institutions. This means that they have little or as none experiences of attachments. When offered a change to develop a relationship it comes to late. ...read more.

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