• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe how Piaget's approach to children's intellectual development has been extended to explain their development of social understanding. In what ways does the approach of Donaldson and her followers differ from that of Piaget?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe how Piaget's approach to children's intellectual development has been extended to explain their development of social understanding. In what ways does the approach of Donaldson and her followers differ from that of Piaget? The work of Piaget provided the foundation for developmental psychology. He concentrated on the development of cognitive abilities, leaving much scope for later research. Before exploring how Piaget's approach has been extended it might be helpful to outline his theory. Piaget's theory is constructivist; it shows how knowledge is actively constructed by the individual. Knowledge of the world is built through interaction with the environment. The development, in 4 stages, is divided into broad age groups, although he stressed that the ages were guidelines only. All children progress at different rates and move gradually from one stage to the next. The 4 stages must be passed through sequentially and are called the Sensori-Motor (0-2 years), the Pre-Operational (2-6 years), the Concrete-Operational (6-12 years) and the Formal Operational (12 years onwards). Children think differently to adults and Piaget believed that as children pass through these 4 stages of development they mature into adult modes of thought. ...read more.

Middle

His famous 3 mountains task illustrates the inability in young children to decentre from their own viewpoint. If Piaget had studied the children in a social context he may have seen examples of them taking each other into account. In T.V. program 2 we saw one child direct another in putting out an imaginary fire whilst playing at being firemen. He had put himself in the others place and decided what the other should do. Being unable to appreciate viewpoints other than your own, is a feature of egocentrism, which Robinson & Robinson (1976) were able to illustrate within the social context, with their study on communication failure. Their results corresponded with Piaget's findings; the ability to take account of another's expectations improves as children develop into the concrete operational stage. As the study on communication failure involved assessing another's needs and placing blame, it extends Piaget's' theory to encompass social understanding. Robinson & Robinson were not alone in their endeavour to extend Piaget's work, there are many similar examples. The approach of Donaldson and her followers however, was fundamentally different to that of Piaget. ...read more.

Conclusion

A study by Light, Buckingham & Robbins (1979) involved 2 groups of 6 year olds. The first group were shown some pasta shells poured from the first breaker to a wider one and 95 per cent of the children confirmed Piaget's finding as being non-conservers. The second group of children were told that the shells were to be used in a game and the reason for the transference of shells was a chip on the rim of the first beaker. This time only 30 per cent of the children gave non-conserving answers. It would seem that the task must make human sense to the child, not just to the investigator. Even though Donaldson's approach highlights the way in which Piaget underestimated children's abilities, it made no criticism of the theoretical framework. The lasting aspects of Piaget's admirable body of work include the concept of a progression through developmental stages. There is a general agreement that the changes involved in the progression are of a qualitative nature, and, as Piaget explained, they come about as a result of constructive activity. Developmental psychology will continue to evolve, grateful for the solid foundation created by Piaget. Piaget & Donaldson Linda Healy Page 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. What is distinctive about the Person-Centred Approach to counselling? Describe how you have put ...

    As infants we start recognising the need for safety, and will become interested in finding safe circumstances, stability and protection. From a negative point of view, it could manifests itself in adults, as our fears and anxieties of creating a comfortable home in a safe neighbourhood, to secure a good job, pension or retirement plan, and insurance.

  2. counselling stages of attachement

    The work was also objective and value free. This all makes the learning theory of attachment high in reliability. * The theory makes common sense and emphasises on the relationship of food as a reinforcer for attachment. Weaknesses - * The person to whom an infant is attached is not always the person who feeds them.

  1. MENTORSHIP ASSESSING

    On one occasion, Rachel was late arriving at her placement - the negative outcome being that a patient had to wait for her insulin injection. The patient's dissatisfaction was, as Skinner describes, the 'negative outcome'. The author discussed the importance of routine for certain patients in relation to their physical and psychological well-being.

  2. Physical, Social and Emotional Development of Children.

    It also highlights any faltering growth and ensures early identification and referral of children with developmental disorders and health problems. For example, one in 3000-5000 babies suffer from growth hormone insufficiency, often linked with other disorders. The test undertaken, and their timing, may vary from one health authority to another.

  1. I have decided to do my portfolio on Beaufort Park School, for several reasons. ...

    The school has offered children with special needs more help, and they have sent letters to the parents explaining this, and to get their permission. Moreover, the parents have been asking for SATs support, and as a result the school has provided the children with revision guides, and is holding

  2. Is Homework Beneficial to Children in Any way?

    we curb or abolish homework, will we be able to take back our home lives we value so much allowing us to begin the process of enriching our community lives once again. However the government combat this negative notion that homework takes away from family time and says that in

  1. To provide age/ability appropriate activities/experiences that will encourage the development of knowledge and understanding ...

    in the pre-school taking into account the constraints of the setting and safety and the needs of the children / parents / carers and staff. To carry out these activities I would provide suitable resources for the effective implementation of the activities and make use of the resources already available within the setting.

  2. I am to provide some fun activities for a group of children to extend ...

    They need to learn about each of the subjects so they can develop all the cognitive skills that they need to further their knowledge, to gain quality and good understanding of the world around them. It will help them to solve the problems they may come up against in the future.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work