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Describe how psychologists have defined and explained substance abuse.

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Introduction

segcgcw orgc gck ingc fogc gc. Describe how psychologists have defined and explained substance abuse. Psychologists have defined the abuse of a substance as the misuse of a substance which is psychologically and physiologically addictive. Such substances can include alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, and harder drugs such as heroine and cannabis. An abuser has an inability to stop using the substance(s) and it not only has negative effects on themselves, it also has effects on factors such as the friends and family. It is often the case that a substance is ingested so much that the body adapts to it and the users tolerance level causes them to seek increasing amount of the substance. If the abuser is not able to provide them with an increased amount of the substance, their body becomes affected and thus the withdrawal effects may involve uncomfortable cravings for the substance. Rosenhan and Seligman defines substance abuse as the the clear existence or a pattern of pathological or heavy daily use with a strong inability to stop or decrease the use of a substance, thus becoming dependant upon the substance. ...read more.

Middle

"all the health risks" after three years of not smoking, her wanting to "shirk the responsibilities of motherhood" caused her to suddenly start smoking again. This means she may have experienced overpowering emotions where she felt life was impossible unless she continued to use the drug. With some drugs a user may become physically dependent. This means their body experiences unpleasant physical symptoms if they suddenly stop using the drug. Both physical and psychological dependence can occur with many drugs. As a result of either or both of these dependencies the abuser may experience relapse. Although they have been able to stop taking the substance, through their belief that the substance is better for their well being, they may start taking the drug again, despite knowing the negative effects on their health. Evaluate psychological explanations of substance abuse. When looking at the reasons for individuals continuing to take part in an addictive behaviour, it can be said that the user would prefer to not face the symptoms which would arise when they try to break the addiction. ...read more.

Conclusion

Give reasons for you answer As the population of the island have never seen a cigarette, one possible method of preventing them from beginning to smoke would be to use Anti-smoking campaigns designed to prevent young people from beginning to smoke. Introducing smoking to young people is a similar scenario to that of introducing it to people who have never seen cigarettes before. There would exist the same common features such as the idea of risk-taking or being rebellious, trying something and new peer pressure between those who wouldn't have tried it and those who had, and a certain amount of misconception towards the issue as a result of being misinformed. Flora and Thoresen suggested that methods used in successful campaigns designed for adolescents ensured strong peer pressure resistance, through the use of role-playing therefore eliminating peer pressure as being a problem which would lead towards individuals beginning to smoke. A final way to prevent the inhabitants from starting smoking would be to introduce them to the direct opposite of informing them about the risks of smoking, but instead aim to instruct and inform them about good health. In this case, the educational model could be introduced. ...read more.

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