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Describe two differences between Short term memory (STM) and Long term memory (LTM) in term of duration and capacity.

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Introduction

Psychology-Ms Wilson Rebecca Johnson Memory Q1. Describe two differences between Short term memory (STM) and Long term memory (LTM) in term of duration and capacity (3 marks) STM has duration of 3-18 seconds whereas the duration of LTM memory can last anything from a few minutes to a lifetime. The STM theory was supported by Peterson and Petersons Study (1959), which was their Trigram experiment. They attained this evidence by asking the participants to remember a single nonsense syllable of three consonants i.e. KPD. They were then given another task to do to stop them rehearsing the trigram. Their recollect was tested after 3,6,9,12,15,18 seconds and the recall had to be in correct order to count. They discovered that 80% of participants recalled the trigrams very well after 3 seconds, but this dropped dramatically to 10 % after 18 seconds. The supporting evidence for the duration of LTM was brought about by Ebbinghaus who tested his memory using nonsense syllables after delays ranging from 20 minutes to 31 days later and found that a large proportion of the information in LTM was lost comparatively quickly, i.e. ...read more.

Middle

Atkinson and Shiffrin described the stores as the structural components of the model and also proposed a number of control processes, such as attention, coding and rehearsal, which operate in conjunction with the stores. Additional research shows that there are two main lines of evidence that support the models assumptions about the way information flows through the system and the existence of the STM and LTM. These are the free recall experiments and the studies of brain damaged patients. In the Free Recall experiments, participants are given a number of words to remember to test whether they can recall them accurately. The results usually fall into a pattern known as the serial position curve. This curve consists of a primary effect- which means that the participants tend to recall the words of the list well, which indicates that this involved recall from long term memory, An Asymptote which indicates that middle portion items of the list are remembered far less well than those at the beginning and at the end, and a regency effect ...read more.

Conclusion

Q3. Give two critisms of the study described The criticisms of the multi-store model are that it is too simplistic, this is because it underemphasizes the interaction between stores i.e. the way information from LTM influences what is regarded as important and relevant to show attention to in sensory memory and helps chunking of information in STM. Another criticism of the Multi-store model is that the STM and LTM are more complex than the model proposes. The Working memory model of STM by Baddely and Hitch (1974) and the research into semantic, episodic, imagery and procedural encoding of LTM deals with this particular criticism. Mere rehearsal is too simple a process to account for the transfer of information from STM and LTM. The model does not include factors such as the effort and strategies subjects may use when learning and the model does not account for the type of information taken into memory, as some items seem to flow into LTM easier than others. The criticisms outlined above are highlighted and dealt with by the approach of Craik and Lockhart (1972) Level of Processing model. ...read more.

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