• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe what psychologists have learned about the control and management of stress

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe what psychologists have learned about the control and management of stress Psychologists have defined stress in many different ways. Lazarus and Launier (1978), regarded stress as a transaction between people and the environment. They have also differentiated between stress as being harmful and damaging (distress) and positive and beneficial (eustress). Psychologist Kelly's (1967, 1972) attributional theory examines the control of stress in terms of attributions for casualty. If applied to a stressor, the cause of a stressful event would be understood in terms of whether the cause was controllable by the individual or not. Bandura in 1977 discussed self-efficiency and control of stress as individual confidence. Self-efficiency refers to an individual's confidence to carry out a particular behaviour. Categories of control, these are five different types of control on stress defined by Thompson (1986). ...read more.

Middle

Psychologists suggest that stress management involves teaching individuals about the theories of stress, encouraging them to be aware of the factors that can trigger stress and teaching them a range of strategies to reduce stress, such as 'self-talk', relaxation techniques and general life management approaches, such as time management and problem solving. This is a good method to treat stress in the right way so it can be diffused, rather than undertaking more stress to deal with it. However, in order to learn the theories of stress and how to manage it, the individual must be willing to make the effort. Progressive relaxation is a method where over many sessions a subject is taught to pay attention to individual muscles. This is an ideal technique for an individual to recognise which muscles they are feeling tense in. ...read more.

Conclusion

Psychologists have learned that ethics is a sensitive factor when managing stress. Giving reasons for your answer, suggest a psychological strategy for reducing road rage (8) A psychological strategy to reduce road rage would be meditation. Where individuals learn relaxation, deep breathing and concentration on one particular sound or area. This technique reduces blood pressure and may help reduce anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, mild depression and irritability. Whenever the individual feels that they are approaching road rage they can use what they have learnt through meditation and assess the situation that they are in and begin to breathe deeply and try focusing their mind on something other than the road rage. I believe this an ideal method to relax when driving, to avoid road rage. It can easily be learned and has no side effects that will cause the individual discomfort. ?? ?? ?? ?? Meera Pankhania ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast the main approaches - Biological and Behaviourist, biological and cognitive, ...

    4 star(s)

    It reduces human behaviour to basic human elements. It ignores all biological and cognitive factors that could influence our behaviour. The approaches are also similar as they are both deterministic. The cognitive approach is deterministic as schemas are seen to be important in an individual's behaviour.

  2. Outline and Evaluate the Biological, Psychodynamic and Cognitive Explanations of Abnormality

    The treatment option of talking therapy may not be suitable to people of all cultures either. The idea of talking as a cure may not be taken as seriously as traditional medicine. Therefore less people would opt to follow this course of treatment.

  1. Free essay

    Discuss the range of methods available to the psychologist.

    One way in which you can make the field experiment is that you only do the experiment in as close to the same condition as the test was originally carried out, you could also do it at exactly the same time of day this would make the experiment more accurate.

  2. Consider the Problems Faced by Psychologists in the Definition of Abnormality

    Although this definition is good as it can easily be used to identify problems within a certain culture, if the same social norms were applied to a separate culture it may appear that everyone was abnormal. Social norms vary drastically between cultures- in Britain people respect personal space and avoid

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work