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Describe what psychologists have learned about the control and management of stress

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Describe what psychologists have learned about the control and management of stress Psychologists have defined stress in many different ways. Lazarus and Launier (1978), regarded stress as a transaction between people and the environment. They have also differentiated between stress as being harmful and damaging (distress) and positive and beneficial (eustress). Psychologist Kelly's (1967, 1972) attributional theory examines the control of stress in terms of attributions for casualty. If applied to a stressor, the cause of a stressful event would be understood in terms of whether the cause was controllable by the individual or not. Bandura in 1977 discussed self-efficiency and control of stress as individual confidence. Self-efficiency refers to an individual's confidence to carry out a particular behaviour. Categories of control, these are five different types of control on stress defined by Thompson (1986). ...read more.


Psychologists suggest that stress management involves teaching individuals about the theories of stress, encouraging them to be aware of the factors that can trigger stress and teaching them a range of strategies to reduce stress, such as 'self-talk', relaxation techniques and general life management approaches, such as time management and problem solving. This is a good method to treat stress in the right way so it can be diffused, rather than undertaking more stress to deal with it. However, in order to learn the theories of stress and how to manage it, the individual must be willing to make the effort. Progressive relaxation is a method where over many sessions a subject is taught to pay attention to individual muscles. This is an ideal technique for an individual to recognise which muscles they are feeling tense in. ...read more.


Psychologists have learned that ethics is a sensitive factor when managing stress. Giving reasons for your answer, suggest a psychological strategy for reducing road rage (8) A psychological strategy to reduce road rage would be meditation. Where individuals learn relaxation, deep breathing and concentration on one particular sound or area. This technique reduces blood pressure and may help reduce anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, mild depression and irritability. Whenever the individual feels that they are approaching road rage they can use what they have learnt through meditation and assess the situation that they are in and begin to breathe deeply and try focusing their mind on something other than the road rage. I believe this an ideal method to relax when driving, to avoid road rage. It can easily be learned and has no side effects that will cause the individual discomfort. ?? ?? ?? ?? Meera Pankhania ...read more.

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