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Differences Between Individuals and Teams.

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Differences Between Individuals and Teams 1. Social Facilitation. o Individuals are more motivated to perform well when in the presence of others (especially on motor tasks). o If the individuals are not comfortable with others, their performance on mental tasks may decrease. o Since one's dominant habits are facilitated by others, poorly trained individuals may engage habits that are ineffective on the task. 1. Learning. Groups learn faster than individuals on tasks where o Several people can work without getting in each other's way; o Problems can be solved through the addition of individuals contributions (e.g., more people, more ideas); o Parts of the solution are at least partially independent so there can be division of labour; o It is possible for others to recognize and correct individual error. ...read more.


o In untrained groups, high confidence in the solution is not necessarily related to quality of the decision. 1. Risky Decisions. o Group-centered decisions can be riskier than leader-centered group decisions. o Group consensus may produce riskier decisions than individuals working alone. o Riskiness of decision is affected by the influence of the most risky group member, norms associated with risk, diffusion of responsibility, and consideration of the outcome. 1. Problem Solving. o Groups generally produce more and better quality solutions than do individuals working alone. o Successful group problem solving is related to: the ability of the best group member, interest in the task, influence of the most confident member, and ability to perform error checking and correcting for each other. ...read more.


o Cohesive groups and those composed of individuals with prior training do better than groups without these characteristics. 1. Guidelines. In general, teams should be chosen over individuals when: o There is sufficient time available. o Members are adequately trained in their specialization areas as well as in team membership skills. o Wide divergence of information and inputs are necessary. o A high quality decision is required; the decision is so important that judgement of several qualified people is a must. o The problem is poorly structured (e.g., unclear objectives, vague alternatives, uncertain outcomes). o Commitment to the plan is important and would be gained by team decision. o Team representation of many stakeholders would facilitate organizational acceptance of the decision or plan. ...read more.

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