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Discuss factors associated with the development of measured intelligence

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Discuss factors associated with the development of measured intelligence Intelligence is defined by Sternberg to be the adaptation to and ability to shape situations that occur in one's everyday life. IQ (intelligence quotient) is a measure of this intelligence, and can be measured by means of IQ tests. It is on these tests that the majority of research into the development of measured intelligence (MI) is based. Factors affecting this development include genetic factors, other biological factors and cultural factors. If genetics play a role in the development of MI, it follows that MI is innate, and that closely-related people will have similar IQ scores. In addition it follows that monozygotic (MZ) twins will have the same IQ since they share 100% of their genes, but dizygotic (DZ) twins will not, as they have fewer genes in common. This is supported by Bouchard & McGue, who found a greater correlation between the IQ scores of MZ twins than DZ twins, with an 86% correlation for MZ twins raised together, 76% for those raised apart, and 62% for DZ twins raised together. ...read more.


The role of genetic factors is further supported by Plomin et al., whose ongoing Colorado Adoption Project has found that children have similar IQs to their adoptive parents in their youth, but by adulthood are more similar to their biological parents in terms of IQ. This indicates a latent genetic influence, therefore supporting the genetic explanation, and furthermore has received support from a similar project in Texas, which has found a 28% correlation between adopted children and their adoptive parents at age 8, but 0% correction at age 18. On the other hand, cultural and environmental factors must play a role, since none of the studies mentioned above have found a 100% correlation between the IQ scores of MZ twins, as could be expected. It may be, instead, that twins have different experiences and it is these experiences that influence their IQ, and that it is because these influences are similar that there is a strong correlation. ...read more.


They argue that we create our own 'microenvironment', in which we may elicit more positive or negative responses from others accordingly, and it is through this process tha MI develops. Therefore, the factors in the HOME inventiry may exist because of indirect genetic influences. The main problem with all of the above research is that IQ tests may not be a reliable or valid measure of intelligence, as they can be biased, both culturally and according to gender. Jensen, for example, found that black Americans had, on average, an IQ 15 points lower than the rest of the population; but critics argued that this was due to cultural differences and bias in the test. A group of American researchers created an IQ test aimed at black cultures, and found that white children underperformed on it. Therefore, it may be impossible to assess whether MI is affected by genetic or cultural factors, or indeed whether MI even exists, by means of an IQ test. Clive Newstead ...read more.

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