• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia

Extracts from this document...


Psychological explanations of schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder as it often involves a loss of contact with reality and a lack of self insight. Schizophrenia has a large number of clinical characteristics. Some of these are Thought control, delusions of passivity, control and influence, and hallucinatory voices. Other symptoms may include catatonic behaviour, incoherent speech and general negativity about the self. Research states, according to family theories, that schizophrenia is a consequence of maladaptive behaviour and poor communication within the family. Bateson suggested the "double-bind" hypothesis, where children are given conflicting messages from parents who express care, yet at the same time appear critical, which was thought to lead to confusion, self-doubt and withdrawal. Litz et al (1965) also coined the term "marital schism", to explain an abnormal family pattern where conflict between parents was associated with schizophrenia in offspring. However, these theories were based on methodologically flawed studies. ...read more.


Support from the notion of expressed emotion has now become a well established "maintenance" model of schizophrenia and many prospective studies have been conducted with support to the expressed emotion hypothesis among many cultures. However, the view that families interaction plays a causal role in the development of schizophrenia lacks empirical support, and such approaches have difficulty in explaining why abnormal patterns develop in some, rather than all of the children in the family. The research is only correlational. Also, there is a lack of explanatory power, given that communication may be similar between schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic families, the theory lacks validity-they don't account for the varied expression and severity of the disorder. Researchers have also investigated the physiological abnormalities associated with schizophrenia, leading to cognitive malfunctioning. According to Hemsley's neuropsychological model of schizophrenia, one of the cause of this disorder is the result of a breakdown in the relationship between previously stored information and new, incoming sensory information. ...read more.


________________________________________ Your essay looks very good, but I think you might be missing out on a few AO1 marks by not explaining the theories themselves in enough detail, particularly the double-bind theory, but you definetly have enough breadth. Try to include the phrase "this prevents the development of an internally coherent construction of reality, manifesting the symptoms of schizophrenia." Examiners will like that and put a big fat tick next to it. Possibly discuss how it requires prolonged exposure. You have an introduction paragraph at the beginning which I personally would cut out. Explaining the clinical characteristics in an essay that asks for Psychological explanations isn't going to gain you any marks; the question isn't asking for that. Just jump straight in there by saying "Psychological explanations of schizophrenia include..." That way you're not wasting any time writing paragraphs that the examiners will just draw a line through. But overall, if I were an examiner, I'd give that an A. Well done ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast the main approaches - Biological and Behaviourist, biological and cognitive, ...

    4 star(s)

    For example one of the main criticisms of Kelley's co-variation model was that it assumed that individuals behave in a logical manner and ignores the fact that individuals can be irrational. This approach is reductionist as it ignores social and emotional factors.

  2. Outline and Evaluate the Biological, Psychodynamic and Cognitive Explanations of Abnormality

    cope, and although defence mechanisms may be displayed, evidence of the psyche's conflict would be intangible. It has been seen that not all children who experience a traumatic event later develop a psychological disorder, however many people suffering from an illness do report to having been involved in some form of emotional trauma.

  1. Atypical Psychology: Describe and Evaluate Perspectives of Psychological Disorders (Studies and Theories).

    This happens because the neurotransmitters associated with stress, fear and the fight or flight response, serotonin and noradrenaline are shut down. Although dreams can be emotional, they gradually alleviate the emotional edge to our memories thus serving us in many positive psychological and pathological areas.

  2. The Gestalt Theory

    Of course, the cycle of contact can be interrupted by fear or danger or frustration. This is where the individual doesn't make contact or experience with the original need and is prevented by using neurotic mechanisms that are briefly explained as the follows.

  1. Outline and Evaluate One Biological and One Psychological Explanation of Schizophrenia

    (1986) provided support for previous investigations, as results showed that in the brains of live patients with schizophrenia, the dopamine receptor density in the caudate nuclei was greater than that seen in a control group. The second source of evidence for the Dopamine Hypothesis has come from observations during drug therapies.

  2. Intelligence Essay

    they can't test for abilities such as dexterity of movement or linguistic ability. It is also worth noting that the Intelligence tests ignore the existence of idiot savants, and those who are exceptionally able in certain areas, but who are not deemed to be 'smart', whereas Gardner's theory accepts those as intelligent in those specific areas.

  1. The contents of this essay will explain different psychological approaches to health and social ...

    Drinking can also be habitual and again, the subconscious is where habits are formed. For numerous individual with drink problems, their reasons can be traced to lack of confidence or poor self-esteem. We are all aware how our inhibitions disappear after the consumption of alcohol, but for an individual, who


    others ?observational learning? and as you watch others you are more likely to imitate them. Bandura & Ross (1961) did a study into observational learning, where three groups of young children who watched a video of an adult behaving aggressively towards a Bobo doll with different consequences.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work