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Discuss research into the effects of daycare

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Introduction

Discuss research into effects of day-care on children's social and or cognitive development. Psychologists debate about whether day-care has a detrimental effect on children at a young age. As more and more people need to put their children in day care, the effects that day care is having must be becoming ever more prominent in our society. It is very hard to generalise the effects of day-care as the types and quality vary so much, and the research that has been done is not enough to give a good enough example for us to be able to make an entire generalisation. Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis shows that if children are separated from their main caregiver then the effects will be harmful. Day-care is where an infant or child is put into the care of another person other than close family outside of the home. The Children put in day care return to their parents or caregivers at night. The effects of this on cognitive development in children are speculated, as some see a link between day-care and poor cognitive development, and research from Hazen and Durret show that children in day care showed more innovative and independent ways of solving problems. ...read more.

Middle

The effects of day care on cognitive development are related to the quality of the setting in which the children are going to day care. Some psychologists say that day care has good effects on cognitive behaviour. Some studies have proven that in situations where the quality of studies is high, and where there are enrichment programmes linked to the school, there are beneficial effects on the children. Hazen and Durrett in 1982 found that children who were securely attached were more independent workers and were more innovative in their ways of solving problems. However this was restricted to securely attached children, and the results may have varied if it was on another child with a different type of attachment. They may have also only been looking at certain age groups where perhaps their development was already further on than some other types of children. The NICHD study however followed 1,300 children through childhood and they concluded that the higher the quality in the first 3 years of life the better the language of the child is at 15 months, 24 and 36 months, and also better performance on the Bayley scales. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also enrichment programmes which have been introduced such as the Scope Perry Preschool project have shown positive effects on social over a long period of time. However there have also been negative effects of day-care on children's social development. The Belsky study in 2003 shows that the more time children spend in day care the more likely they are to show aggressive and disobedient behaviour between the ages of 4 and 8. It is argued that the quality of the day care comes into play as those who experience low-quality day care will be the ones who experience the negative effects, because they won't experience having a close bond with the primary caregiver at home. Conversely, a study by Harvey in 1999 showed that children suffered no permanent harm because of the absence of their mothers. It was also concluded that the outcomes of whether or not day-care had any effect at all on social development depended on the quality. Pennebaker et al have speculated over which gender is affected more, however research suggests that boys are affected more. Whether day-care has negative or positive effects on children's development overall, it is hard to draw a final conclusion because the evidence suggests that it has both positive and negative effects. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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