• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss the view that stress is environmentally determined.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"Psychological research has provided evidence to support the view that stress can be caused by life changes. It has also provided evidence of individual differences in response to sources of stress." Discuss the view that stress is environmentally determined. Although stress is an unavoidable part of life and may not be entirely negative as it is able to increase motivation and arousal, psychological research has shown that it can be caused by life changes and can therefore be environmentally determined. Marmot et al (1997) recognised that an environment such as the workplace can cause stress. The results from lower-paid and higher-paid grades self-report questionnaires and five year follow up showed that the lower-paid grade had an overall increase in stress-related illnesses. ...read more.

Middle

retrospective study. With the social readjustment rating scale (SRRS), participants identified personal life events and were able to give them a social value score. Higher life change units (LCU) were related to an increase in stress related illness, studied by Rahe (1970). As a US study, it was culturally specific; however there wasn't any manipulation of variables so there were no serious ethical issues. In these terms, stress can either be short-lasting and acute, for example, going into an examination, or longer-lasting and chronic, for example, the death of a spouse may cause prolonged stress. Daily hassles cannot be considered as major life events, but instead are the small daily stressors. As much as suggestions have been made about stress being environmentally determined, there is also a large bearing on individual differences. ...read more.

Conclusion

A Type A behaviour (TAB) person is linked to being vulnerable to stress related illness, showing that stress can also be caused by a behaviour type as well as environmental factors, as a Type B behavioural type will not become as vulnerable to stress. Rosenman et al (1976) followed middle-aged men and directed a link between TAB and stress related illness. In accordance with this, a person's hardiness may also determine how stressful they might deem a situation to be. The three basic elements include control, commitment and challenge, which increase resistance to stress. This evidence is slightly contradictory against environmental factors: although environmental factors do contribute towards stress, a personality factors can combat against this result and therefore it is individual differences which conclude a person's reaction. ?? ?? ?? ?? AS Psychology - Biological Psychology Heather McDonald ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

5 star(s)

Response to the question

The candidate here has opted for a very conventional essay structure, but seeing as their are no points for originality awarded in this question (which only tests AO1 and AO2), this is no problem at all. The conventional structure in ...

Read full review

Response to the question

The candidate here has opted for a very conventional essay structure, but seeing as their are no points for originality awarded in this question (which only tests AO1 and AO2), this is no problem at all. The conventional structure in fact helps the candidate gather their information and present it clearly. All in all this succeeds at being a very clear and well-presented essay which responds well to the question as the candidate shows a good level of proficiency in both their knowledge of psychology and of the psychological evidence that can be used to fortify their answers. Each point for and each point against (the essay is nicely balanced) the theory that stress is environmentally determined is backed up with a useful, valid study to exemplify the points the candidate gives, and this is what makes the essay so well-constructed and effective.

Level of analysis

The Level of Analysis here is very good. Whilst slightly prescriptive, the candidate succeeds at forming an effective analysis through this formula. The candidate makes good, clear points for and against the argument about environmental stress factors, citing much research evidence to aid their answer. This is good because it not only shows examiners how the candidate can structure effective analysis, but also that they are equipped with enough knowledge to effectively discuss the topic the question proposes.

Quality of writing

The Quality of Written Communication is good from both a Psychology perspective and an English perspective. On the one hand he candidate makes excellent use of grammar, punctuation and spelling, to ensure clarity in their written expression and also show the examiner they are proficient users of the English language and it's tool in order to shape meaning. And from the psychology perspective, the candidate applies a number of specialist vocabularies and terms accurately, showing the examiner they are confident to discuss psychology in the language of the professionals.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by sydneyhopcroft 18/07/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    'Life changes, no matter if they are positive or negative, are always a source ...

    3 star(s)

    parents, imprisonment of their mother or father, and major personal disability or illness. Sometimes, apparently positive events can have stressful components. For example, a woman who gets a job promotion may receive a higher salary and greater prestige, but she may also feel stress from supervising co-workers who were once peers.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Managing stress through Exercise and Therapy

    3 star(s)

    One of three types of appraisals could be made: 1. It is good (positive) 2. It is irrelevant (neutral) 3. It is stressful (negative) Secondary appraisal Secondary appraisals occur at the same time as primary appraisals. A secondary appraisal can actually cause a primary appraisal.

  1. Stress can be explained as the stimulus in the environment that triggers a stress ...

    Conclusion - LCU positively correlated (related) with illness scores, experiencing life events increased chances of stress-related health breakdown. Life events can't be only factor. Criticism - Study doesn't take reaction of individual differences to stress into account. Sample restricted to male US Navy personnel, therefore it was ethnocentric (Americans only)

  2. Identify and discuss strategies for coping with Stress

    A lot of Seyle's research was based on using laboratory animals and his results showed that constant exposure to severe stressors produces three physiological phases, the first phase is alarm reaction, and this showed the bodies physiological response to a situation with stressful stimuli.

  1. Sleep and Biological Rhythms revision

    Also adaptive for endogenous rhythms to be reset by external cues so in tune with environment * Would be life threatening being solely reliant on exogenous cues, therefore endogenous are important Other EZs * Social cues - the liver and heart rest by eating + Eskimos rely on social cues

  2. Coping with stress

    The other half was rewarded when their heart rates speeded up. In both groups there were significant changes in heart beats after repeated reinforcement. Learning can also occur through relaxation. In order to reduce blood pressure the patient is told to relax, and this leads to changes in muscle tone and ANS activity.

  1. What are the Risk Factors for Childhood and Adolescent Depression?

    theoretical divisions of psychosexual development as demarcated by Freud (1905/1953) and Erikson (1950)." Within each of these groups, prevalence has been found to be as follows. In children younger than 12, the incidence of depression is said to be about 2 to 3 % of the population (Angold & Costello,

  2. Unit 1 psychology revsion notes (memory, attachment, research methods)

    member, they will cope better Experience of past separation ? positive will cope better Day care Anderson ? studied social and cognitive progress of children attempting Swedish day care ? children who went to day care are were better with other children and were more sociable and outgoing Clarke ?

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work