• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss two or more explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting

Extracts from this document...


'Discuss two or more explanations for the success and/or failure of dieting' Restrained eating has become synonymous with dieting. Research suggests that as many as 89% of the female population in the UK consciously restraint heir food intake at some point in their lives. Restraint theory (Herman and Mack 1975) was developed as an attempt to explain both the causes and the consequences associated with the cognitive restriction of food intake. Herman and Mack suggest that attempting not to actually eat actually increases the chance of overeating. Their study showed that the overeating shown by many dieters is actually caused by their attempts to diet. Using the preload/taste-test method, Herman and Mack gave a group of dieters and a group of non-dieters either a high or low calorie preload. ...read more.


However, although the restraint theory proposes and association between food restriction and overeating, according to Ogden (2007) it does not explain as to why people who suffer from anorexia are able to starve themselves. Also, the restraint theory suggests that restraint leads to excess, yet the treatment for obesity often recommends restraint as a solution to the excessive weight gain. However, failed attempts to diet can leave the individual feeling depressed as they are unable to control their weight. Although obesity may not necessarily be the cause overeating, overeating may be a consequence of obesity if restraint is recommended as a treatment. The boundary model was developed by Herman and Polivy (1984). According to this model, hunger keeps intake of food above a certain minimum, and satiety works to keep intake below some maximum level. ...read more.


Wegner referred to this phenomenon as the 'theory of ironic processes of mental control. A decision to eat less or not to eat specific foods is central to the dieter's cognitive set and may set up a similar process of denial. Therefore as soon as food is denied, it simultaneously becomes forbidden and is, eventually, translated into eating. In conclusion, it is evident that although dieters often aim to lose weight by restricting their eating, this is not always achieved. The fact that overeating and also undereating can cause weight gain, can often be frustrating and off-putting for many people wishing to lose weight. Also it is possible that there due to the lack of weight loss in the first few days of the diet, motivation decreases, leaving the individual in a low mood and not wanting to continue with the diet. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)


This is a short, but concise essay.The writer has got the 'gist' of both models and explains them simply and clearly. There are plenty of good references with the main studies cited. The writer could mention a little more about the pressures to diet, the various diet fads on the market and social/cultural pressures to be a certain weight.

Some more detail could be added to improve the score and the introduction and the conclusion could be improved upon too.
Star rating 3*

Marked by teacher Linda Penn 08/10/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Managing stress through Exercise and Therapy

    3 star(s)

    Each one of the 43 stressful life events was awarded a Life Change Unit depending on how traumatic it was felt to be by a large sample of participants. A total value for stressful life events can be worked out by adding up the scores for each event experienced over a 12 month period.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Compare and contrast two explanations of depression.

    3 star(s)

    Allen (1976) found a relationship in the rates of unipolar depression in monozygotic (identical) twins was 40% and Di-zygotic (evidential) twins 11% and for bipolar depression it was 72% in MZ and 14% DZ. This illustrates that depression may be due to genetic factors as identical twins had a higher

  1. Biological Explanations of Aggression

    Evidence to support neural explanations of aggression comes from Raleigh et al. They found that vervet monkies fed on a diet high in tryptophan (which increased serotonin levels) demonstrated lower levels of aggression than ose fed on a diet low in tryptophan.

  2. Unit 1 psychology revsion notes (memory, attachment, research methods)

    People have bonds by * Seeking proximity * Distress on separation * Joy on reunion * General orientation or behaviour towards the other person Animal Attachment ? first thing they see is their mother Shaffer and Emerson (1964) * Studied 60 babies in Glasgow * Monthly visits for the first

  1. Discuss two or more evolutionary explanations of food preferences (8+16 marks)

    A debate which arises within this theory is to whether or not food preference is down to evolution or is down to learn behavior.

  2. Describe & discuss how each psychological perspective explains smoking using empirical evidence to support ...

    Most of the research has sampled heavy smokers therefore giving an unrepresentative picture of all addiction types. There is evidence that the chemical change in the brain from NRT does not work for everyone, so this suggests there are other factors involved like social or environmental factors that are factors in smoking addiction.

  1. Research that has suggested a link between Stress and Personality.

    Those individuals with such specific personality (type A) take a bigger risk with their health as their responses to everyday situations such as waiting in queues or traffic jams are to treat them like emergencies and as a result the hormonal reactions linked with ?fight or flight? are frequently aroused rather than rarely.

  2. Discuss Research That Has Suggested A Link Between Stress And Ill Health.

    In a study by Kielcot-Glaser et al. (1995) compared the wound healing rate of a group of high stress women caring for relatives with Alzheimer?s disease and a stress free matched group. They noticed that in the group of high stress women, complete wound healing took nine days longer than

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work