• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discussion - From the analysis of the results, it clarifies that the outcome of the investigation showed that the labels given influenced the participants and so this affected the way the participants drew it from memory.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Discussion From the analysis of the results, it clarifies that the outcome of the investigation showed that the labels given influenced the participants and so this affected the way the participants drew it from memory. These results gained were similar to Carmichael et al.'s (1932) study, which was mentioned in the introduction. The findings of this study were that the participant's drawings were much more like the verbal description than the original stimulus figures had been. So as the investigation completed has gained similar results to that of Carmichael's it can be stated that this probably happened because the participants found it easier to rely on those labels when remembering. If it had been essential to remember the drawings accurately the participants might have used more demanding processing strategies. From the data analysis, it clearly proves the experimental hypothesis 'Interpretation of an ambiguous figure will be influenced by how it is labelled and recall will be better in females than males' correct. The graph of average results show that females scored significantly higher than males. (See results for graph). Moreover, the graph comparing the average scores in each condition also show that females scored higher than males (see appendix for graph). Also the results clearly show that both males and females scored the highest is condition A compared to condition B. ...read more.

Middle

The sampling size was bias as it was opportunistic sampling, which doesn't generalise results to the population and it only tested twenty people overall which is a small sample size. Other possible limitations could be demand characteristics, which are cues in the research situation that might alert the participant to the hypothesis being tested. Demand characteristics could have leaded the participant to react differently. This could have included faithful participant trying to react to the situation as naturally as possible. A cooperative participant tries to find out the purpose of the study so they can help to support it. A negativistic participant tries to discover the purpose of the study in order to work against it. Investigator effects could also be a source of bias, which is when the researchers who have a particular aim or hypothesis in mind unconsciously influence how their findings turn out. To deal with these problems, the next time this study is repeated, the same environment would be used in an isolated area (e.g. a classroom) to ensure noise levels are minimised. The interference task would be changed, for example asking the participant to spell a number of words or to verbally state a multiplication. Having a random selection of participants and having a bigger size to obtain more reliable results could improve the sampling size. ...read more.

Conclusion

very much like the Carmichael experiment. The different colour codes of different cultures: English: Purple Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Shona: Cipswuka Citema Cicena Cipswuka Bassa Hui Ziza So therefore further investigations into whether labelling did alter perception could be carried out to prove Carmichael's theory correct. Hunt and Agnoli (1991) put forward a modified version of the linguistic relativity hypothesis. According to Hunt and Agnoli "different languages lend themselves to the transmission of different types of messages." In some languages there may be terms or concepts that make certain logical arguments easier than in another language. This would make it easier to think in that way, but would not preclude a speaker of another language from having the same thought. Thus any given language makes it easy to think in certain ways, but hard to think in other ways. Summary This study was replicating a classic experiment conducted by Carmichael et al. (1932) based upon the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis. The findings of the experiment were that the labels had an effect on the memories of people; they produced drawings, which were more illustrative of the label than representations of the original drawing. The implication of the study was that language is a powerful influence on the way we construct the world mentally. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    You must remember these ten adjectives perfectly in order to go on to the next stage. Please try your best to remember all ten adjectives as soon as possible. When you are finished, please inform the experimenter and you will be given a writing utensil and a paper.

  2. An investigation to discover the effects of retroactive interference on memory recall.

    Null Hypothesis * There will be no significant difference in the common number of words recalled correctly between the group that receives no retroactive interference (no second list) and the group that receives and interference word list. Experimental Hypothesis * The participants who do not receive an interference list will

  1. Carry out an experiment on participants to investigate proactive interference on memory recall, using ...

    So you spot spelling mistakes etc. Bruner and Postman (1949) carried out an experiment investigating these theories where participants were expecting to see ordinary playing cards, presented very briefly. When black hearts was presented, participants claimed to have seen purple or brown hearts. Here, there is a blending of the colour black (bottom-up processing)

  2. Investigating the effects of organisation on learning

    Gerontology, 52, pp. 314-323. HART, J., BERNDT, R. & CARAMAZZA, A. (1985). Category-specific naming deficit following cerebral infarction. Nature, 316, pp. 439-440. KAHANA, M.J. & WINGFIELD, A. (2000). A functional relation between learning and organization in free recall. Psychon Bull Rev. 2000, 7, pp. 516-521. MANDLER, G. (1967).

  1. Psychology discussion

    Table comparing the result of my study and Bowers study: This Study Bowers Study Average words recalled % of Words Average words recalled % of Words Organised 7.1 71% 16.9 65% Disorganised 2.9 29% 4.94 19% The results are quite similar although the results above have a higher percentage of

  2. Temperament Construct

    In this paper, I will discuss the activity level, positive and negative effects as it relates to the temperament construct later in the paper. But for now, let us examine how temperament can be measured? Observations, assessments, case study, longitudinal research and questionnaires, to name a few.

  1. Free essay

    Correlation between age and sleep

    levels Some studies suggest that increased in napping is associated with increased mortality. On the other hand napping has been associated with lower diastolic pressure, improved mood, decreased subjective sleepiness and improves in mental performance. Poor physical health is implicated in disrupted sleep, and one of the main reasons for

  2. Is performance of memory affected by environmental stimuli?

    Aim This experiment aims to investigate whether or not the recall of a list of words is influenced by playing classical music (Mozart). The rationale for carrying out this experiment was because teachers always ask for silence in the class when tasks are set, whereas I prefer to play music

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work