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Distinguish between subjectivity and objectivity in relation to psychology.

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Introduction

E. Dougherty. Psychology essay for T. Johnson. 05/11/2012 Distinguish between subjectivity and objectivity in relation to psychology. This essay is going to summarise, define and evaluate the psychodynamic and behaviourist approaches to psychology using objective and subjective scientific research. Folk psychology is an explanation of everyday human behaviour which is motivated by beliefs and desires. The explanation was developed by Tim Crane, (1962) a philosopher of the mind and metaphysics who has numerous publications on his work. Crane suggests everyday behaviour is explained using the beliefs and desires psychology principle which he implies individuals have been using since the age of two. An example to show this principle is an access student desires to be a nurse so they believe by doing an access to nursing course it will get them to university. Paul Churchland, (1942) a philosopher of the mind and neurophilosophy, is against folk psychology because he deems it as nonexistent since it does not give explanations on sleep processes, mental disorders, creativity, memory, abnormal mental behaviours and differences in IQ levels. Churchland suggests what will explain everyday behaviour is neuroscience because it will provide an adequate explanation and proposes folk psychology is static whereas Crane is for folk psychology because he believes ...read more.

Middle

This could cause men to feel anxiety over sex in later life and women to feel envy of the penis. Stage 4, ages 5-puberty, the child?s sex drive is repressed, which results in interactions with the same sex peers but there are no consequences as there is no fixation at this stage. Stage 5, ages puberty-death, the adult seeks pleasure from their genitals either by masturbation or sexual intercourse but there are no consequences as fixation should happen, this indicates a healthy adult. (Johnson 2012) In Freud?s traditional psychoanalytic therapy, transference is used to describe the client?s unconscious feelings which are projected on to the opaque therapist. These feelings provide a foundation used for identifying, accepting and discussing the therapist?s interpretation of the problems without disclosure however in counter-transference therapy, it follows the same merits as transference but the therapist instead disclosures the information to someone else. (Hill 2009) The primary paradigm of psychology between the 1920s-1950s, behaviourism, also known as the behavioural approach, focuses on the external observable behaviour which can be scientifically and objectivity measured through controlled methods. Behaviourists believe there is no such thing as free will as all animal and human minds are born with a ?tubula rasa? so behaviour is learnt through their environment by either operant or classical conditioning. ...read more.

Conclusion

Freud?s traditional psychoanalytic therapy can also be seen as flawed if the client is unable to verbalise their experiences if they lack the cognitive ability which results in unsuccessful psychodynamic therapy. (Hill 2009) Humanistic psychologists dismiss the behaviourists scientific method of controlled and measured variables because they imply it creates a fake environment and produces low ecological validity, however they also reject behaviourism because they believe humans are unique and they cannot be compared to animals and imply humans have a free will which allows them to make their own choices in life. Freud criticises behaviourism because it does not focus on the internal behaviour and rejects the idea humans are born with a ?tabula rasa? because they are born with instincts. (McLeod 2007) Ethnologists dismiss behaviourism theories because they disagree with animal testing whereas cognitive psychologists disregard behaviourism since behaviourists ignore important mental processes involved in learning. While there are many negative views on behaviourism there are a number of positive contributions towards psychology such as behaviourists use scientific and experimental methodology and provide sturdy counter-arguments to the nature side of the nature-nurture dispute. Another positive to the behaviourism theory is it has seen the social leaning theory overrule the weaknesses while using simple principles such as classical and operant conditioning to explain a variety of phenomena. (Hill 2009) 2000 words! . ...read more.

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