• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Distinguish between subjectivity and objectivity in relation to psychology.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

E. Dougherty. Psychology essay for T. Johnson. 05/11/2012 Distinguish between subjectivity and objectivity in relation to psychology. This essay is going to summarise, define and evaluate the psychodynamic and behaviourist approaches to psychology using objective and subjective scientific research. Folk psychology is an explanation of everyday human behaviour which is motivated by beliefs and desires. The explanation was developed by Tim Crane, (1962) a philosopher of the mind and metaphysics who has numerous publications on his work. Crane suggests everyday behaviour is explained using the beliefs and desires psychology principle which he implies individuals have been using since the age of two. An example to show this principle is an access student desires to be a nurse so they believe by doing an access to nursing course it will get them to university. Paul Churchland, (1942) a philosopher of the mind and neurophilosophy, is against folk psychology because he deems it as nonexistent since it does not give explanations on sleep processes, mental disorders, creativity, memory, abnormal mental behaviours and differences in IQ levels. Churchland suggests what will explain everyday behaviour is neuroscience because it will provide an adequate explanation and proposes folk psychology is static whereas Crane is for folk psychology because he believes ...read more.

Middle

This could cause men to feel anxiety over sex in later life and women to feel envy of the penis. Stage 4, ages 5-puberty, the child?s sex drive is repressed, which results in interactions with the same sex peers but there are no consequences as there is no fixation at this stage. Stage 5, ages puberty-death, the adult seeks pleasure from their genitals either by masturbation or sexual intercourse but there are no consequences as fixation should happen, this indicates a healthy adult. (Johnson 2012) In Freud?s traditional psychoanalytic therapy, transference is used to describe the client?s unconscious feelings which are projected on to the opaque therapist. These feelings provide a foundation used for identifying, accepting and discussing the therapist?s interpretation of the problems without disclosure however in counter-transference therapy, it follows the same merits as transference but the therapist instead disclosures the information to someone else. (Hill 2009) The primary paradigm of psychology between the 1920s-1950s, behaviourism, also known as the behavioural approach, focuses on the external observable behaviour which can be scientifically and objectivity measured through controlled methods. Behaviourists believe there is no such thing as free will as all animal and human minds are born with a ?tubula rasa? so behaviour is learnt through their environment by either operant or classical conditioning. ...read more.

Conclusion

Freud?s traditional psychoanalytic therapy can also be seen as flawed if the client is unable to verbalise their experiences if they lack the cognitive ability which results in unsuccessful psychodynamic therapy. (Hill 2009) Humanistic psychologists dismiss the behaviourists scientific method of controlled and measured variables because they imply it creates a fake environment and produces low ecological validity, however they also reject behaviourism because they believe humans are unique and they cannot be compared to animals and imply humans have a free will which allows them to make their own choices in life. Freud criticises behaviourism because it does not focus on the internal behaviour and rejects the idea humans are born with a ?tabula rasa? because they are born with instincts. (McLeod 2007) Ethnologists dismiss behaviourism theories because they disagree with animal testing whereas cognitive psychologists disregard behaviourism since behaviourists ignore important mental processes involved in learning. While there are many negative views on behaviourism there are a number of positive contributions towards psychology such as behaviourists use scientific and experimental methodology and provide sturdy counter-arguments to the nature side of the nature-nurture dispute. Another positive to the behaviourism theory is it has seen the social leaning theory overrule the weaknesses while using simple principles such as classical and operant conditioning to explain a variety of phenomena. (Hill 2009) 2000 words! . ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I am going to contrast and compare three approaches in psychology ...

    4 star(s)

    After that, whenever a rat was shown to Albert 'this conditioned stimulus produced a conditioned response of fear. This study ... provided evidence that even complex behaviours, such as emotions, could be learned through manipulation of one's environment.' (http://education.stateuniversity.com) Burrhus Frederick Skinner was other experimental behaviourist psychologist.

  2. Describe the application of behaviorist perspectives in health and social care. Describe the application ...

    The id is based on a pleasure principle and wants what it wants when it wants it. This is why it is linked to babies instincts as this is how a baby will react in the firs several mounts of there life.

  1. Memory and Mental Imagery

    was to remain confidential and that the experiment would not take longer than 15 minutes. A coin was tossed to see whether the participant would perform the experiment with the use of mental imagery or without. The task instructions (see Instructions 2)

  2. Cognition & development How a human/child develops knowledge/understanding of everything.

    * "Are there more black cows or more cows sleeping?" Every1 could answer correctly which deomonstrates Piaget underestimated younger children. Limitations * Egocentricity is the 1st limitation - Piaget's studies were limited in terms of egocentricity which was demonstrated in the 3 mountains experiments.

  1. Free essay

    Correlation between age and sleep

    Each sleep is about 60 minutes in early infancy and increases to 90 minutes during adolescence. A. study conducted by researchers at the University of Chicago, in particular Dr Eve Van Cauter, found a strong link between sleep and aging.1 She found that sleep deteriorates at two points in a

  2. The Behaviourist Approach

    Little Albert was then exposed to the white rat, but every time he reached out to touch it Watson would make a loud noise. Albert would get frightened and start to cry. After repeating this several times, Albert started getting frightened just by seeing the rat.

  1. Investigation into the relationship between an individuals precieved ugliness, harmfullness and an individuals fear ...

    Method Design The design used for this study was a correlation analysis, this design was used as it makes it possible to identify relationships between phobias and stimuli, and makes it possible to research peoples fears as this cannot be researched in any other way which is ethically sound.

  2. Evaluate 3 Approaches to treating Mental Disorders: Psychodynamic, Biological and Behavioural Approach.

    This supports Freud?s notion of condensation where unacceptable desires are censored and dealt with by recombining fragments until they emerge in a new form or the obvious content of the dream. However there are some negatives associated with dream analysis, it is very expensive as often the therapy is longitudinal

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work