Do pre information affect impression formation
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Introduction When we meet someone for the first time what information do we use to help us decide what that person is like? They may shake hands, smile, and look at us. They may be dressed in a certain way, speak with an accent or remind us of someone as judgements are made on very little information. All this information is used, more or less effectively to help us in our impression formation. However there are circumstances when we get it wrong and unconscious cues or biases result in misjudgements of others. A theory was put forward by Asch (1946) in a series of investigations that saw him varying one trait within a set of traits, and then gaining a record of the final impressions. An analysis was then made addressing whether or not these varied traits had any effect on the final impressions. Asch believed that the final impressions would vary according to the presence of a different central trait. This would suggest that all traits that are given to the participants are combined into a single image of the hypothetical person in question. Asch's experiment was also further validated by a more 'naturalistic' replication by Kelley (1950), who introduced a guest lecturer to students, describing the newcomer by listing a series of traits.
The sample method used was an opportunity sample method. I collected a group of students from the common room as they had free time. They were requested if they could spend some time and participate in a psychology research. The research was carried out with two moderators including me and the psychology teacher. As the participants were divided into 2 groups for condition 1 and 2, I made sure the experiment was carried out at the same time. Materials An image of the stimulus was chosen randomly from internet and a smart board was used to show the image so it is clear observed. I chose not to print the image in the questionnaire because it could have been not that clear as it was on the smart board. The participants were given instructions on A4 sheets and a pen was used to answer the questionnaire. I also used a Likert scale to receive clearer impression formed for both warm and cold conditions. A pre information sheet will also be used on which the information about the stimulus would be given to the participants. (See appendix 2). Procedures During the study for both the conditions the participants were given instructions and were free to leave if they wanted to withdraw at any time.
* The following experiment is for a psychology coursework * If at any time you want to leave or withdraw, please feel free to leave as it is truly voluntary. * The answers you provide are anonymous and are not given to any other sources. * The answers in the questionnaire would be only used for this experiment but nothing else. * Are the instructions clear to everyone, if not then please ask. * An image of a person will be shown to you on the smart board. * You are required to listen to the information the moderators going to give you, and use the likert scale on the sheets in front of you to rate certain characteristics of the person on the smart board. * If you all are happy with what you need to do then lets start the experiment. Are you all clear with what you are doing? * If you need any help, please raise your hand and wait for the experimenter to assist you. Debriefing * Thank you very much for giving us your precious time and participating in the experiment. * As I have said earlier this was for my psychology course, to experiment if cold or warm pre information of a stranger are given to individuals, forms negative or positive impressions respectively. * Thank you once again.
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