• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Examine key psychological theories of personality

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Examine key psychological theories of personality When it comes to the explanation of psychological personality theories, there are three main theories from different psychologists. The first psychologist, Carl Rogers, defined the self as ?the awareness of being, of functioning?. He distinguished between a real and unique organismic self, and the self-concept. Our organismic self is our true self, where all answers lay. Rogers saw human nature as essentially positive, realistic, and forward thinking, he believed that at the heart of our personality is a desire fro growth and fulfilment. Self-concept is what we?ve learnt. We have a fundamental need for positive regard, which means feeling loved and wanted. We learn that our behaviour dictates whether or not we are accepted. Our personality is formed under influence, not our conditions. This is known as the humanistic approach. The next theory of personality comes from Hans Eysenck. His theory has gained world-wide acceptance, and is currently one of the major systems on how we look at human personality. His research identified three types of personality - extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism. During the 1940?s, he was working at a psychiatric hospital in London, his position at the hospital was to make an initial assessment of each patient before they were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. ...read more.

Middle

The id is the primitive and instinctive part of our personality, it consists of inherited components, including our sex instance (Eros), and aggressive instincts (Thanatos). This part of our personality operates on the pleasure principle, which is the idea that every pleasurable impulse be satisfied immediately, regardless of consequences. Our ego is developed in order to mediate between our id and the real world (much like a referee), it?s the decision making component of our personality. it operates according to the reality principle. Working on realistic ways to satisfy the id?s demands, often compromising (or postponing) satisfaction, in order to avoid the negative consequences of society. The ego considers social realities and norms, etiquette and rules in deciding how to behave. The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from our parents and others, it?s most similar to the idea of a ?conscience? which punishes the ego through feelings of guilt. The ego attempts to balance the id and the superego, because if either one of them is the stronger force, then it produces undesirable results. If the superego is in control, people can tend to be judgemental, overly moral, and feel a lot of guilt within themselves, on the contrary, if the id is in control, people will be selfish, anti-social, uncaring, and self-absorbed. ...read more.

Conclusion

The humanistic approach would look at behaviour as stepping stones for people who are trying to reach their ideal self, as it believes that humans are essentially positive and forward looking. Humans have a need to grow and fulfil their potential, so it?s only natural for humans to behave in ways that reflect these desires. In a contrasting way Eysenck?s theory expects us to behave in set ways, in line with our personality type. This is the basis of the whole theory, peoples behaviour fitting into specific personality categories, with little surprise coming from an action. Eysenck viewed personality as ?that which permits a prediction of wha a person will do in a given situation? basically stating that a persons personality type allows them to be read like a book, and their behaviour should fall in line with these prior predictions. Freud theory is kind of in the middle of both of these, as he doesn?t really state that humans are stuck in their ways, when it comes to personality and behaviour, but he did point out signs that point to whether or not the ego was maintaining balance correctly. He believed that a persons behaviour reflects their mind, if they behave a certain way, it tells us if their id is taking over, or they?re overcome by their superego. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences essays

  1. Atypical Psychology: Describe and Evaluate Perspectives of Psychological Disorders (Studies and Theories).

    caused by internal factors, however, for both schizophrenia and depression other factors need to be considered such as neurological, behavioural, psychological and socio-cultural. (Coordination Group Publications 2009; Richard Gross 2010). There are theories to suggest that abnormal brain structure caused by abnormal development could be the cause of schizophrenia.

  2. The Gestalt Theory

    The here and now concept of Gestalt Therapy brings forth all past experiences and thoughts of the client so that he/she can learn to stick with every moment and become totally involved with the situation long enough to feel confident to close it and move onto the next problem.

  1. Free essay

    Discuss the range of methods available to the psychologist.

    In most cases if the observations are being taken in a laboratory then it is easier to avoid problems of consent as the participants know they are being observed. This is known as an overt observation. However, demand characteristics may have a major affect on the observations results.

  2. Examine 'The Five Precepts' in the context of 'The Eightfold Path'

    rid of any that do arise and instead endeavour to produce thoughts of loving kindness and maintain those wholesome thoughts. Right Effort would enhance the appreciation of the second precept, not to take things that aren't given, as it would make the individual see that such an act is unwholesome and unwholesome thoughts must be abandoned and prevented.

  1. An Investigation into the effects of race on the perception of Guilt.

    * Dependent Variable: - The guilt rating assigned. Operations I am measuring whether or not racism affects legal decisions. I have operationalised this by asking people to judge how guilty they believe a person to be on a scale of 0 to 10 with 0 being not guilty and 10 being guilty, producing ordinal data.

  2. The contents of this essay will explain different psychological approaches to health and social ...

    vulnerable of individual are interacted with, for instance, children and adults with physical and potentially mental health concerns. (Stretch et al, 2010) Rogerian counsellors are an additional approach practiced within social care. The counsellors act in a non-judgemental, non-directive manner, displaying warmth, empathy and unconditional personal regard towards the service users.

  1. Level 2 Counselling skills. Theories -CBT, Psychodynamic and Person Centred.

    A developmental framework is used to understand how life events and experiences led to the development of core beliefs, underlying assumptions, and coping strategies. CHANGE VIEW: 10 key facts about CBT: Change: your thoughts and actions Homework: practice makes perfect Action: don't just talk, do!

  2. Introduction to Personality

    That being the case, it is not so clear as to why there are so many theories related to personality. The main assumption for the reasons for this is that every researcher comes from their own personal point of view, has their own personal experiences, and unique manner of looking at the world.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work