• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain and evaluate the three models of memory.

Extracts from this document...


Explain and evaluate the three models of memory * What are they, and how they work * Comparisons and contrasts between the three * Critically describe your own views on the models. Memory is a cognitive function, which we are all able to process and recall. Some of us better than others, these discrepancies between the variations in the extent to which we can recall information may be genetic, due to lack of semantic incentive or basically due to medical and health reasons, such as temporary amnesia or tumours in the brain. Memory falls into three distinctive categories; these are sensory memory, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). These variations in the type of memory are all combined to form the three main processes in memory; registration is the process by which sense organs detect a stimulus, this stimulus is then entered into the memory system. Storage is also important, because the degree of storage is due to many factors, such as the type of stimulus and the region of the brain where it is to be stored. Finally retrieval, probably the most important factor in the memory system, without the ability to retrieve memory from a store, and then memory is made redundant, even if the chunk of information has semantic value to the person involved. ...read more.


The levels of processing model, works down a gradient of sense, for instance there are three levels on which Craik and Lockhart believed that information would be remembered, they are structure, phonological and semantic. By structural we mean, you will remember things that you have physically seen, e.g. the shape of an apple. Phonological represents, acoustic information, e.g. your favourite song being played, and you being able to recall the words. This works with the other two models, the multi-store would say that you have paid attention to the lyrics and then tried to rehearse them, meaning that you have an active knowledge or memory of the lyrics. The working memory may assume that the phonological loop has a store of the lyrics, which after being repeated numerous times has been passed onto the LTM. The type of information, which will be recalled most easily, is the information that is semantically coded, such as memories of birthdays, or an experience that may have affected you. This is because it has personal meaning, and takes priority over other normal mundane things like objects and sounds. The three models can be contrasted more than they can be compared. The multi-store model relies to heavily on the ideas of rehearsal and attention, also that the STM is the direct route to the LTM, but studies have shown that the STM can be damaged, but this can lead ...read more.


First hand experience indicates that the more attention you pay to something and the more semantic meaning it has to you the easier you will be able to recall it, (when revising for examinations, I find it easier to recall something that I understand.) But I do agree with the idea that the working model demonstrates of scratch pads and loops, which help to retain to information, there have been many incidents when I have experienced these two utilities. The idea of the central executive being able to make decisions is also an interesting factor, but it is accepted that the attentional processes of the STM and central executive are the same. I do not really agree with the levels of processing model, it is not as comprehensive as the other two models, and basically states the blindingly obvious in stating that you will remember semantic information more easily than any other information. Another observation is that none of the other models seem to consider the idea of sensory memory, thus providing no logical idea for where the information comes from. After studying and considering all three models I believe that the multi-store seems to be the superlative, because it shows more logical progression, and it a model that has minimal criticism. Even with the use of models, memory is something that is hard to quantify it remains a mystery why some people have better memories than others; this is something, which psychology and biological sciences could determine. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing ...

    4 star(s)

    was much greater than his forgetting of visual stimuli. In conclusion they suggest that there is not just one short-term memory, but a number of different stores, each represented in different parts of the brain. They also found out that KF's problems lied with what they called the "auditory-verbal short-term store".

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and Evaluate 2 Models Of Memory

    4 star(s)

    He found out that the majority of errors involved a substitution of a letter by another letter of a similar sound. However, it is very easy to lose the information due to decay or displacement. Displacement means that new information pushes out the old information as the capacity of the

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and evaluate the Multi-store Model of memory.

    3 star(s)

    the recognition of the complexity of the STM makes it sound theoretical sense. However, some brain-damaged patients appear to suffer impairment to some functions of STM and not others therefore suggesting existence of several specialised systems within STM. This was suggested by Shallice and Warrington, 1974 The main weakness, however,

  2. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    Table to show the scores obtained by participants, aided by mental imagery or without, and the recalling of word pairs Mental Imagery Group Control Group (No mental imagery) 16 10 15 12 18 11 12 9 12 13 16 10 17 12 18 8 17 10 17 9 Table to

  1. Investigating the short-term memory

    They were given a pen, and a scoring sheet, and were told that they have the absolute right to withdraw from the investigation at anytime. They were told when the investigation will be starting. And the stopwatch was pressed simultaneously as the first word was read out.

  2. Describe the application of behaviorist perspectives in health and social care. Describe the application ...

    Autonomy will be when the child is experiencing thing without being controlled such as forced to do it or rushed. They would be supported and given the feeling that they are competent. On the other hand shame and doubt will come from a child being controlled witch could lead them to question there self ability.

  1. Outline and Evaluate the Multi Store Model of Memory and One Alternative Model

    By using deep processing more elaborative mental representations may be created. This means that the information is now linked and related in the memory to a greater number of items of information, each of which can be used as a cue.

  2. Does chunking help with memory?

    Variables The variables are controlled - whether the participant is given the organised list or the disorganised list to memorize. * Independent variable The independent variable is the factor which I have manipulated and controlled. In this case it is whether the list of words is organized into categories or whether it is disorganized.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work