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Explain what is meant by the terms attachment and insecure attachment.

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Attachments Essay 1a) Explain what is meant by the terms attachment and insecure attachment. (3marks + 3marks) Attachment- is an emotional bond between two people. It is a two way process that endures over time. It leads to certain behaviours such as clinging and proximity-seeking, and serves the function of protecting an infant. Secure attachment- This is a strong and contented attachment of an infant to his/her caregiver, which develops as a result of sensitive responding by the care giver to the infant's needs. Secure attachment is related to healthy subsequent cognitive and emotional development Insecure attachment- This is a form of attachment between infant and caregiver that develops as a result of the caregiver's lack of sensitive responding to the infants needs. It may be associated with poor subsequent cognitive and emotional development. b) Outline the findings and conclusions of one study in which the long-term effects of deprivation have been investigated and give one criticism of the study. ...read more.


Criticism: Attrition- The original sample was reduced in subsequent follow-ups. This is called attrition and is a problem in longitudinal studies because particular kinds of participants are likely to be the ones who 'drop-out'. It is possible that more troubled children dropped out - though this should have affected both the adopted and restored children equally and therefore not have biased findings. Sample bias - it is also possible that the adopted and resorted groups were different because the children first selected for adoption might have been less troubled children. Parents select which child they want to adopt and so are likely to select an easier one to deal with. This could explain why the adopted children got on better at home but doesn't explain why they had more difficulties with peers. According to the temperament hypothesis easier children should have easier relationships with everyone. This means that the Hodges and Tizard findings do support the view that privation has a negative long-term effect. ...read more.


the behaviour in order to avoid discomfort. The person who supplies the food is associated with avoiding discomfort and becomes secondary reinforcer, and a source of reward in his/her own right. This 'rewardingness' is attachment This approach has been called the cupboard love theory of attachment because it suggests that the infant becomes attached because he/she is fed, and that the infant becomes attached to the person who feeds him/her. Criticisms Explanation 2 : The psychoanalytic approach: Freud's theory Freud developed a theory of personality - an explanation of how each individual's personality develops. This theory can be used to explain many aspects of behaviour, including attachment. Freud proposed that attachment grows out of the feeding relationship. In essence Freud claimed that infants are born with innate drive to seek pleasure. He called this the pleasure principle, and suggested that one 'structure of the personality' (the id) was motivated by this principle. The id is the primitive, instinctive part of our personality that demands oral satisfaction. The person providing this satisfaction becomes the love object, and an attachment is formed. ...read more.

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